cluded selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors n 10 selective norepinephrine

Cluded selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors n 10

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cluded (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: n = 10, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: n = 3, alpha2a-agonist: n = 3). TDCs were excluded if parents reported any known genetic, language, learning, neurological, or psychiatric disorder, premature birth, or first- or second-degree relative with ASD. Youth were also excluded if par- ents reported elevated symptoms on any scale from the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI- 4R; [ 23 ]. Groups did not differ in age and sex ratio, but the ASD group had a marginally lower GCA than TDCs (Table 1 ). Phenotypic measures For this study, we developed the Interest Preference Assessment (IPA), a short interview adapted from the Interests Scale [ 24 , 25 ], to directly evaluate each child s most favorite interest/hobby to be used in the fMRI task (see Additional file 1 ). The IPA is comprised of two sections: The first section consists of a list of 25 categor- ies of interest (e.g., machines or figuring out how things work, animals, people), and children are asked to rate each interest on a scale from 1 to 5, with 5 indicating I could do this activity or talk about this topic all the time. The second part of the IPA asks children to iden- tify their primary interest and answer questions assessing the interference and intensity of that interest (e.g., How much time do you spend doing or thinking about this interest or hobby? Does this get in the way of other re- sponsibilities? Do you get annoyed or upset when you are asked to stop talking or doing this interest or hobby? ). Most children identified a singular primary interest, but a few children identified more than one interest as their favorite. In these cases, we asked them to pinpoint the interest they would most enjoy having in the upcoming MRI session. Examples of interests include videogames, professional sport teams, musi- cians/actors, toys, elevators, and movies (Additional file 1 : Table S1). Additionally, all parents were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale-2nd Edition (SRS-2; [ 26 ]), the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R; [ 27 , 28 ]), and the Interests Scale (IS; [ 24 , 25 ]) to dimensionally as- sess behaviors characteristic of ASD. Participants were compensated for their participation in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their parents. This study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. Table 1 Summary of participant characteristics by diagnostic group Measure TDC ( n = 22) ASD ( n = 39) p value* Age (years) M (SD) 12.85 (2.13) 12.58 (2.37) 0.66 Age range 9.08 17.00 8.17 17.58 VIQ (SS) M (SD) 113.5 (15.4) 105.6 (14.4) 0.06 PIQ (SS) M (SD) 109.2 (16.2) 101.9 (16.5) 0.10 FSIQ (SS) M (SD) 111.9 (18.0) 103.6 (15.7) 0.08 Sex ratio (male:female) 17:5 29:10 0.80 ADOS-2 social affect + RRB 11.62 (3.89) ADOS-2 severity 6.87 (0.32) ADI-R social Interaction 18.39 (5.20) ADI-R communication 14.61 (4.87) ADI-R repetitive behaviors 6.03 (2.09) RBS-R (total score) 17.87 (11.88) SRS-2 (total T -score) 39.5 (4.87) 73.41 (10.71) < 0.001 IS (total score) 9.53 (2.41) 14.2 (3.76) < 0.001 VIQ verbal IQ, PIQ performance/nonverbal IQ, FSIQ full-scale IQ, SS standard score ( M = 100; SD = 15), SRS-2 Social Responsiveness Scale 2nd Edition, ADOS-2 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Module 3 or 4, ADI-R Autism
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  • The Land, Striatum

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