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controlled by the state Regulation -Government becomes more intrusive still when it choose the sixth policy instrument -Almost every aspect of our lives is now regulated by government -Government regulation interferes with individual or corporate freedom more than any instrument listed previously and is therefore more frequently criticized -Deregulation Taxation -Seventh type -Generally considered even more intrusive than regulation because although it also has the effect of constraining behavior, it actually takes something away from the individuals or corporations on whom is imposed Public Ownership -Eighth instrument -Typically taking the form of a crown corporation -The collectivist streak in the Canadian political culture has given rise to the existence of a large number of important state enterprises -Privatization State of Emergency -Governments can usually invoke emergency powers -These power give special coercive functions to the police and military to assist the government in achieving its policy objectives -War measures act Aboriginal Politics One: Historical Context Who is Aboriginal? -Pre-contact = self defined -Contact = state defined -Post-contact = constitutionalization -Marshall-citizenship is contested and has its privileges -Identity who is and who isn’t aboriginal? -Concept of being a Canadian citizen
-The ideal citizen -Being a British citizen gave you rights above the Canadian in the past -Pre WW1 loyal subject of empire, aboriginal person as a non-citizen Post WW2 caring/sharing Canadian, aboriginal person as ward of the state -Today entrepreneurial citizen, aboriginal person as self-sufficient and selfgoverning -Great law of peace as early as 1100 -Federalism comes out of this -Iroquois -Algonquin -J treaty Aboriginals can pass freely through the Canada and the US (signed by US and Britain) -Had a different economic approach • Communal property • Reciprocity • Common good • Classless • Land • Hunting/agriculture • Labour • Intensive labour for collective -Politics • Stateless • Counsel free • Solidarity • Community -Culture • Spirituality • Teachings • Collectivist • Tradition • Individual subject to collective -Dehumanization to indigenous people -Contact = colonization and empire -Politics: Tere Nulius = land without people -Britain decided they needed to ensure peace with the indigenous people • Royal Proclamation 1763 (illegal for members of 13 colonies to claim land west of the Appalachians) -Economics: Hudson Bay Company and the expansion of the fur trade = resource colonialism -Political terms • Terre Nulius land without people
• Colonialism nation to nation domination • Decolonization independence of colony • Post colonialism life after colonialism • Internal colonization colonize within Post Contact -Relationship became political -Politics = empire/colonialism of GBR and then Canada -Economics = continued cap made of production -Government policies • Constitution act 1867 s. 91(24), Indians and lands reserved for Indians • Indian act, 1876