factor is your betweenness which literally refers to how much you are located

Factor is your betweenness which literally refers to

This preview shows page 68 - 72 out of 73 pages.

factor is your "betweenness," which literally refers to how much you are located between others in the network. The more betweenness you have, the more you control the distribution of information and other resources to people on either side of you. In Exhibit 10.3, Person A has high betweenness centrality because he or she is a gatekeeper who controls the flow of information to and from many other people in the network. Person G has less betweenness, whereas Person F and several other network members in the diagram have no betweenness. Another factor in centrality is the number or percentage of connections you have to others in the network (called "degree centrality"). Recall that the more people connected to you, the more resources (information, favors, etc.) will be available. The number of connections also increases centrality because you are more visible to other members of the network. Although being a member of a network gives you access to resources in that network, having a direct connection to people makes that resource sharing more fluid.
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Finally, centrality is a function of the "closeness" of the relationship. High closeness occurs when a member has shorter, more direct, and efficient paths or connections with others in the network. For example, Person A has fairly high closeness centrality because he or she has direct paths to most of the network, and many of these paths are short (implying efficient and high-quality communication links). 18 Chapter Ten Power and Influence in the Workplace Part Three Team Processes 300 Person A has high betweenness, closeness, and degree (number) centralityEXHIBIT 10.3 Centrality in Social Networks 301
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Chapter Ten Power and Influence in the Workplace Part Three Team Processes Person F has low betweenness, closeness, and degree (number) centrality 301 Chapter Ten Power and Influence in the Workplace Part Three Team Processes One last observation is that Exhibit 10.3 illustrates two clusters of people in the network. The gap between these two clusters is called a structural hole.52 Notice that Person A provides the main bridge across this structural hole
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(connecting to H and K in the other cluster). This bridging role gives Person A additional power in the network. By bridging this gap, Person A becomes a broker—someone who connects two independent networks and controls information flow between them. Research shows that the more brokering relationships you have, the more likely you are to get early promotions and higher pay. The Dark Side of Social Networks Social networks are natural elements of all organizations, yet they can create a formidable barrier to those who are not actively connected to it.53 Women are often excluded from informal management networks because they do not participate in golf games and other male-dominated social events. Nina Smith, who leads Sage Software's Business Management Division, has had several conversations with female executives about these power dynamics. "I'm still trying to knock down the Boys
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