haidt.graham.in-press.above-and-below-left-right.pub070-as-Word.doc

Way as a story that makes claims about what is right

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way, as a story that makes claims about what is right and wrong, rather than simply having themselves described by a series of psychological traits. Cluster 1: Secular Liberalism The sociologist Christian Smith (2003, p. 64) has observed that we are “animals who make stories but also animals who are made by our stories.” Smith describes a variety of high-order, often unconscious narratives that organize identity and moral judgment at both the individual and group levels. One of these he calls the “liberal progress” narrative: Once upon a time, the vast majority of human persons suffered in societies and social institutions that were unjust, unhealthy, repressive, and oppressive. These traditional societies were reprehensible because of their deep-rooted inequality, exploitation, and irrational traditionalism... But the noble human aspiration for autonomy, equality, and prosperity struggled mightily against the forces of misery and oppression, and eventually succeeded in establishing modern, liberal, democratic, capitalist, welfare societies. [However,] there is much work to be done to dismantle the powerful vestiges of inequality, exploitation, and repression. This struggle … is the one mission truly worth dedicating one’s life to achieving. Consistent with the first graph in Figure 1, the liberal progress narrative makes extensive use of the Harm foundation ("suffering," "misery," "oppression") and the Fairness foundation ("unjust," "inequality"). There is no mention of ingroup or nation, and no mention of purity or sanctity. Authority and tradition are mentioned only as the sources of harm and injustice. Cluster 2: Libertarianism For libertarians, the most important value, the good that may not be sacrificed to any other, is – as the name of this position implies – individual liberty . Libertarians are ever vigilant against infringements of liberty, even infringements motivated by the most sincere commitments to other worthy values, such as equality (see, e.g., Fried 2007). The novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand is one of the most iconic of libertarian thinkers. Rand did not speak for all libertarians, but she is revered by many, and her novels were naked ideological narratives. In these novels, “once upon a time” refers to the awful years of socialist oppression of the individual and worship of egalitarian mediocrity; the hero is a creative and rugged individualist who refuses to conform; and the dénouement is the restoration of freedom, which makes prosperity and happiness possible for everyone. In a 1964 interview with Playboy magazine (reprinted in Boaz, 1997) she stated her narrative goal frankly: "I seek to provide men—or those who care to think—with an integrated, consistent, and rational view of life.” She then described how her personal life story motivated her ideological story: When I came here from Soviet Russia, I was interested in politics for only one reason—to reach the day when I would not have to be interested in politics. I wanted to secure a society in which I
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