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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

A managerial grid is a nine by nine matrix outlining

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A managerial grid is a nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles. Blake and Mouton proposed a Managerial Grid based on the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for production,” which essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the Michigan dimensions of employee oriented and production oriented. The grid does not show results produced but, rather, the dominating factors in a leader’s thinking in regard to getting results. The contingency approach to management involves using one or a combination of the main theories of management depending on the situation. The contingency approach chooses from the Scientific Management, Administrative, Human Relations, Bureaucracy, and Systems approaches. There are three main approaches to leadership. The contingency approach states that effective leadership depends on many factors in the situation, and was developed after the trait and behavioral approaches. There are several major contingency approaches which have been defined. Managerial grids graphically plot a manager’s most probable leadership style . Managerial Grids became a favorite tool for conducting leadership studies and improving management leadership effectiveness. Grid scores are based on a scale of 0 to 9 for both people and tasks. Robert House came up with the Path-goal Contingency Theory, which states that the leader's role is to help the subordinates understand the organizational goals and the payoffs. House came up with the Path-Goal Theory. This defined different leadership roles appropriate for various situations--supportive leadership for a routine, repetitive task; directive leadership for a non-routine, complex task; and participative and achievement oriented styles. In Robert House's Path-Goal Theory, a supportive leadership style is appropriate for a non-complex, repetitive task. According to Robert House's Path-Goal contingency theory, directive leadership is best for complex , non-routine task. This is the opposite scenario of when supportive leadership is used--in this case the leader should use directive leadership. Other leadership styles defined by House include participative and achievement oriented. The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style of interacting with his or her subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Fiedler developed an instrument, which he called the least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire, which purports to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented. Further, he isolated three situational criteria: leader- member relations, task structure, and position power. He believed that these criteria can be manipulated so as to create the proper match with the behavioral orientation of the leader.
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