SCIENCE and RELIGION in the 19th CENTURY Notes

Enlightenment positives when you dont need causes

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enlightenment Positives When you don’t need causes operating behind scenes, because you can explain everything though observation. If you can describe them, don’t bother. Shift from way things happen to how things happen Comte says each science goes through these stages. Each science builds on the last and that this will help to eventually predict human behavior All of this demonstrates Comte’s view. As he got older, he developed science of religion as a cult. Scientists were positivists saints. Catholicism is secular dress Positivism was very, very popular, because once some Catholics became disillusioned they turned to this o I.e. Brazilian flag says order and progress
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Religion at Mid-Century Catholicism o Pope Pius IX (1846-78) all leaders conservative. In favor of continuity; rejected progress. Around so long, the church commanded respect. Pius XI was example of this when in 1864 he published Syllabus of Errors . Errors of human and clergy. Rejected humanity o Formation of Italy was formed from smaller kingdoms, one of losers in this process was the Catholic Church which help much property in papal states (central Italy) o Pope refused to recognize Italian State for rest of 17 th century. Agreement eventually reached—Vatican is sovereign state in 1829. Difficulties in having state and church intertwined. Annexation of all states in 1860 o Liberal anticlericalism—church is incompatible with freedom and reason rest of 19 th century will embody many bourgeoisie fall into this category Catholic revival—Catholics defend themselves and traditions to strengthen themselves—divide themselves into parties I.e. the shrine at Lourdes )apparition occurred in 1858, then became major pilgrimage site) Protestantism o Hegel and Liberal theology Protestants tried to harmonize religion and progress History is forward movement, Christianity changes over time—like progress Hegel claims Protestantism is advance over Catholicism. Catholicism resides on images. Hegel viewed this as backwards. Protestants worshiped at more extract level. Similarities between Hegel and Comte—both view God as idea, not person Decades following amazing changes in attitude of the bible. Academic discipline of Philology is what prompted this Philology : historical study of language, how it’s changed over time. Go back through texts (grammar, spelling). Manuscripts are composites of different layers through different times. How languages discovered This affects the truth of biblical authorship Mesopotamians had same creation stoues (?). Bible is not only by ____ (?), therefore not unique
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Old testament was writing in 4 stages Old versions came after Moses. All notions of literal accounts are questioned. Bible study is much more complicated, and subject to historical change Freed religion from literal terms, why Protestantism is attractive Darwin’s Origin of Species Survival of the fittest—what does that mean?
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