U78851129 methods week 1 and 2 synthesizing kidney

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U78851129Methods:Week 1 and 2Synthesizing Kidney StonesThree different kidney stones, calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, and calcium carbonate were produced. Dissolving 4.33g of CaCl2in 10mL of deionized water (DI water) and 5.23g of Na2C2O4in 10mL DI water, the aqueous solutions were mixed in order to form a precipitate of CaC2O4. This was then repeated using 5.28g of Ca(NO3)2and 7.95g of NaH2PO4in 10mL of DI water. The aqueous solutions were mixed, forming a Ca3PO4precipitate. Using 11.8g of Ca(NO3)2and 5.29g of NaCO3, each was dissolved in 10mL DI water and then mixed to form a precipitate of CaCO3. Each of the precipitates were then filtered through the process of vacuum filtration. After being filtered, the precipitates were placed on an evaporating dish in the oven for around 5 minutes. The precipitates were left to dry and solidify for a week. Week 3Dissolving Kidney StonesThe kidney stones produced in week 1 and 2 were used to test the solubility in 3 different home remedies, apple cider vinegar, lime juice, and cranberry juice. 0.2g of calcium phosphate was placed into 50mL of apple cider vinegar. 0.2g of calcium oxalate was placed into 50mL of lime juice. 0.2g of calcium carbonate was placed into cranberry juice. The stones were left to dissolve for 45 minutes. After 45 minutes passed, each solution was filtered through vacuum filtration. The left over kidney stone from each solution was placed on an evaporating dish in the oven until dried. The mass of each left over was taken and recorded.
U78851129Results:Table 1: Dissolving of Kidney StonesHome Remedy Used(50mL)Kidney StoneInitial Mass(g)Amount Left Over(g)Amount Dissolved(g)Apple Cider VinegarCalcium Phosphate0.200.090.11Lime JuiceCalcium Oxalate0.200.200.00Cranberry JuiceCalcium Carbonate0.200.0430.157Equations:Percent Yield:percent yield=actual yieldtheoretical yield×100CaCl2 + Na2C2O4CaC2O4+ NaClCalculations to Synthesize Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stone5gCaC2O4×1molCaC2O4128.02gCaC2O4×1mol Na2C2O41molCaC2O4×134g Na2C2O41mol Na2C2O4=5.23g Na2C2O45gCaC2O4×1molCaC2O4128.02gCaC2O4×1molCaCl21molCaC2O4×110.98gCaCl21molCaCl2=4.33gCaCl2percent yield=4.80gCaC2O45.00gCaC2O4×100=96.0
U788511293Ca(NO3)2

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