Calvin considered a protestant religious reformer

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and Roman texts along with the study of Biblical text to create a better society for leaders. Calvin, considered a Protestant religious reformer, desired to educate all members of society about the truth found in Scripture through the development of literacy skills. Lastly, Comenius created educational agencies aimed to decrease ignorance, increase knowledge to know God, and
HISTORICAL ERA ANALYSIS 4 receive a vision of a peaceable kingdom in which all people could live in mutual respect (Gutek, 2011). Both Comenius and Aquinas relied on the combination of the Naturalist philosophy with Christianity to develop their ideas concerning teaching and learning. According to Gutek (2011), Comenius viewed supernatural and natural order complimentary. He observed growth and development found in nature and applied that concept to human growth and development as it related to the learning cycle of children. Comenius promoted the use of students working in small groups and students being clustered by grade levels to learn. Seeking the intellectual life, Aquinas provided personal commentary to the work of Aristotle in order to better understand natural reasoning (Johnston, 2016). Aquinas argued that human ideas begin with the senses and are transformed by sensory data and cognition, passing through truth revealed in Scripture. Teachers were known as instruments of learning, possessing a body of knowledge and instructional skills to transfer to students (Gutek. 2011). Historical Era 2: Social Reform Gutek (2011) described the Social Reform Era as a period of widespread social activism and political reform throughout many parts of the world. Influential activists included Mohandas Gandhi, William E.B. DuBois, and Paulo Freire. Each man accepted the task to attempt to eliminate industrialism, oppression, political corruption, and inequality in the community in which they lived. Each man had a slightly different purpose for education as it related to their situation. Spiritual universalist, Gandhi purposed that education was a tool which helped to develop a well- rounded, intellectual, moral, and physical whole person. Activist, DuBois claimed education was
HISTORICAL ERA ANALYSIS 5 an important instrument used in the struggle for equality. Liberation, Freire stated that the power of education liberates or frees oppressed people from the social, economic, and political conditions that oppress them (Gutek, 2011). Seeking independence from British Imperialism, Gandhi led the Indian culture in nonviolent protests to declare their freedom. Vocational education was an essential aspect of Gandhi’s educational philosophy. He believed that an agriculturally-based communal living environment assisted in developing the whole child. Often teachers would work among the children. In the Southern United States, DuBois opposed early vocational education and insisted that higher education was necessary for African American students. DuBois sought to combine

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