unless permission is given by the Superintendent General. This provision does not apply to any professional man, mechanic, missionary, teacher or interpreter;oIf an Indian woman marries a non-Indian man she will cease to be an Indian. (Although, she is still entitled to her share of the annuities;oNo half breed shall be accounted an Indian.1884 amendmentsoPower to direct Band Councils given to the Indian Agent.oPotlatch Ban1886-87 Amendments7
oCompulsory school attendance for Indigenous children.oResidential Schools officially established.1889 AmendmentoIndigenous fishers are excluded from the commercial fishery.1927 AmendmentoIndigenous people prohibited from raising money or retaining a lawyer to pursue land claims.1950 AmendmentoIndigenous people granted the right to vote, and retain the status.1985 AmendmentoBill C-31oThis was an attempt to counteract previous legislation that discriminated against Indigenous women.oBill C-31 enables Indigenous women to be reinstated and to regain their status. They are only able to pass this along to one generation.oThis has been challenged as unconstitutional under Section 15 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms by Sharon McIvor, and the Supreme Court has agreed. The Indian Act is being amendedChapter 3 – Sarah Hunt – Embodying Self-Determination: Beyond the Gender Binary“Much of what I have read has said that we do not exist, that if we do exist it is in terms which I cannot recognize, that we are no good and that what we think is not valid.” (Linda Tuwahi Smith. 1999. Decolonizing Methodologies. Pg. 35)This quote sums up the colonial experience and agenda of the erasure of Indigenous peoples from existence. The so called, Vanishing Race ideology.Why was/is it so important for the colonial system to vanish/erase/disappear Indigenous peoples.Land, resources, sovereignty, diversity8
Chapter 3: Indian Residential Schools"When the school is on the reserve, the child lives with its parents, who are savages, and though he maylearn to read and write, his habits and training mode of thought are Indian. He is simply a savage whocan read and write. It has been strongly impressed upon myself, as head of the Department, that Indianchildren should be withdrawn as much as possible from the parental influence, and the only way to dothat would be to put them in central training industrial schools where they will acquire the habits andmodes of thought of white men." – Sir John A. Macdonald1.HistoryThe very first boarding schools were created by the Jesuit Missionaries, and run by the Ursaline Nuns in what was known as New France in the early 1600s.This was a short live social experiment that was conducted, and it was abandoned long before the English took over in 1763.The practice of assimilation through education was revived in the 1830s by The New England Company, a British based missionary society. They opened the Mohawk Institute in Brantford, Ontario.