Carbon is electroneutral never loses or gains electrons but always shares them

Carbon is electroneutral never loses or gains

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Carbon is electroneutral never loses or gains electrons, but always shares them (always forms 4 covalent bonds) Todd FA19 13:30 long chains, branches, and ring structures. Carbon atoms can form... Many different Carbon-based molecules with unique structures The uniqueness of Carbon lies is that it can bind to itself Todd FA19 13:30 carbon-carbon single bond carbon-carbon double bond carbon-carbon triple bond Carbon atoms can also form Double and Triple bonds Carbon Bonds Todd FA19 13:30 Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Organic Molecules of Life Four Classes
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BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology I Todd 18 Todd FA19 13:30 Organic Molecules of Life The larger molecules in each class are formed by joining subunit molecules (combining monomers to form polymers) Class Monomer (subunit) Polymer ( or large molecule) Carbohydrates Sugar molecule Polysaccharides Lipids Fatty Acids, Glycerol Lipids, Phospholipids Proteins Amino Acids Proteins Nucleic Acids Nucleotides (DNA, RNA) Todd FA19 13:30 Carbohydrates sugars and starches Carbohydrate – “hydrated carbon” Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Classified as: Monosaccharide one sugar ex. glucose Disaccharide two sugars ex. Sucrose (fructose +glucose) Polysaccharide many sugars ex. glycogen, starch Glucose Sucrose Glycogen Todd FA19 13:30 Carbohydrates Glucose, fructose, and galactose are isomers , they have the same formula (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), but the atoms are arranged differently Monosaccharides simple sugars, single chain, or single ring structures (3-7 carbons) - most important in the body are the pentose and hexose sugars Todd FA19 13:30 Carbohydrates Disaccharides double sugars, formed when two monosaccharides are joined by dehydration synthesis Sucrose cane or table sugar Maltose malt sugar Lactose milk sugar Todd FA19 13:30 Carbohydrates Must be broken down by hydrolysis to monomers for absorption from digestive tract into blood Disaccharides double sugars two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis (loss of a water molecule) Enzymes involved? (added) Todd FA19 13:30 Polysaccharides polymers of simple sugars Glucose molecules
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BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology I Todd 19 Todd FA19 13:30 Starch chain of glucose molecules, with few side branches. Energy storage for plant cells Glycogen highly branched polymer of glucose, the storage carbohydrate for animals Cellulose chain of glucose molecules, a structural carbohydrate, the primary constituent of plant cell walls Chitin a polymer of glucose with amino acids attached, a primary constituent of exoskeleton Types of Polysaccharides Todd FA19 13:30 Representative Lipids Found in the Body Fatty acids and Triglycerides in subcutaneous tissue, around organs, in blood plasma Phospholipids major component of cell membranes Steroids cholesterol, some hormones Eicosanoids prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes Lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) combinations of fat and protein that transport fatty acids and cholesterol in the bloodstream Todd FA19 13:30 Long- term Energy storage - highest caloric values per weight (9 Calories/gram) Lipids
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