binding constraints such as regulations laws rules and constitutions and their

Binding constraints such as regulations laws rules

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binding constraints such as regulations, laws, rules and constitutions and their respective enforcement mechanisms to ensure an orderly society, in areas such as personal security and property rights. In so doing, they enable citizens to conduct everyday business and solve problems 32 . However, the effec- tiveness of all institutions depends, informally, on the levels of trust in the society as well as informal constraints such as norms and behaviours, con- ventions and self-imposed codes of conduct such as ethics. In this context, the country’s institutional structures must be transformed if the goals of Vision 2030 are to be achieved. As such, this sec- tion reviews the performance of Trinidad and Toba- go’s institutions and makes recommendations for their improvement. 32 North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press HOW HAS TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO PER- FORMED IN TERMS OF ITS INSTITUTIONS? Figure 4.1 shows the World Bank governance indi- cators which evaluate countries according to six criteria: voice and accountability; political stability; government effectiveness; regulatory quality; rule of law; and corruption. The index is a percentile rank among all coun- tries ranging from 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest) and estimates of governance performance (ranges from weak (-2.5) to strong (2.5)) governance. The data shows that over the period 2005‒2014, Trin- idad and Tobago has been oscillating around the 50 th percentile ranking in Political Stability, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption indicators. In fact, the corruption ranking has worsened dramatically from 2013. Although, Trinidad and Tobago performs much better in terms of Regulatory Quality, Gov- ernment Effectiveness and Voice and Account- Institutional Transformation FIGURE 4.1 WORLDWIDE GOVERNANCE INDICATORS 2005-2014 Source: The World Bank Group, The Worldwide Governance Indicators 69-70 V I S I O N 2 0 3 0 N AT I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T S T R AT E GY 2 0 1 6 - 2 0 3 0 Making the Necessary Adjustments
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ability indicators, the country has been stuck in the 60 th ‒70 th percentiles ranking over the period of review. In 2016, the Inter-American Develop- ment Bank conducted a six country study on trans- actional services such as registering births and renewing identification cards. The survey analysed each procedure in terms of its internal quality and external value and ranked them from 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest). 33 The external value focused on the citizens’ experience when they received the ser- vice. The results of this survey, shown in Figure 4.2 above, revealed that Trinidad and Tobago had low levels of citizen satisfaction and quality of transac- tional services. Birth registration and Identification Card renewal were the only two services in which citizens expressed positive levels of satisfaction (Figure 4.2, above), while applying for a disability allowance, obtaining a doctor’s appointment in a public hospital and reporting a crime were the services with the lowest rankings. In general, all
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