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d)shift the balance of power in Europe from England to itself.During the 1500s, the New World was primarily dominated bySpain, because it had more colonial possessions than other European countries.The system of coerced labor in New Spain grew directly out of Spaniards' assumption thatSpaniards were superior to Indians.Some of the scientific and technological advances that aided European explorers by 1400 included theastrolabe and the compass.John Cabot was sponsored by the English monarch to search for a "Northwest Passage" to the Indies. Which area did he manage to reach and claim for England?NewfoundlandThe Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean, and that which was west of the line belonged to Spain and that which was east belonged to Portugal.The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as theColumbian exchange.By the 1460s, the Portuguese used African slaves to work sugar plantations on the Cape Verde Islands and became the first nation toassociate plantation labor with African slavery.In order to adapt to the demands of longer ocean voyages, the Portuguesedeveloped a vessel known as the caravel.After fifty years of contact with Europeans in the New World,90 percent of the Indians had died primarily from the harshness of colonial policies and diseases inadvertently transmitted by Europeans.When Columbus first sighted land in 1492, he believed he had discovered a new route toIndia and China.Which of the following countries first navigated a sea route from Europe to Asia?PortugalIn the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand thatthe discoveries of Columbus, Balboa, and Vespucci proved there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.Like many other European colonies in the New World, New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in whichEuropeans became a dominant minority in a society stratified by race and social origin.
Chapt 2A new social class was made up of children who were born in the Spanish New World to parents who had