Add to these the vii7 of v and we can observe that

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Add to these the “vii°7 of V,” and we can observe that Beethoven’s dominant pedal point is much like the one we heard in Bach’s C major Prelude. There are some notable differences, though. For one, a dominant pedal point in a minor key is inherently more “serious” in its effect on the listener. And toward the end of the pedal point Beethoven places the Neapolitan chord, the D major triad, over the dominant pitch, G- sharp, in the bass. It’s another subtle, exquisite moment, soon followed by one of the most beautifully satisfying deceptive resolutions in all of music, when Beethoven finally moves from dominant harmony (V7) to the A major triad ( VI ) in the second half of m. 40. The deceptive resolution is followed by a cadential formula (ii°6 – V7 – i) in mm. 41-42 that sets up the “Recapitulation.” Let’s take a closer look at mm. 20-43, observing these and other notable details. The Recapitulation While the first movement of Beethoven’s “Moonlight” Sonata is not a sonata-allegro form, it does have something of a “Recapitulation,” beginning after the Authentic Cadence that
follows the extended dominant pedal point. As would be the case in a sonata-allegro Recapitulation, we hear the first theme reiterated in the tonic key, sounding as it did at the beginning of the movement. Interestingly, now, Beethoven repeats the modulation to the relative major, rather than “staying home” in the tonic key. And this time, instead of a change of mode and a further modulation, we hear the first theme stated again in E major, before we are led back to the tonic key of C-sharp minor for a “recapitulation” of the second theme in the tonic key. When we see and hear the second theme restated in the tonic key (mm. 52-55), we recognize that its tortured minor 9th dissonance occurs between the tonic pitch, C-sharp, in the bass, and the lowered second scale degree, D-natural, in the melody. Remarkably, the second theme is preceded—and presaged—by one last progression (mm. 50-51) that includes the Neapolitan Six chord: N6 – V7 – i. And in that progression we hear the same three melody notes of the second theme: D-natural, B-sharp, C- sharp. Let’s take a closer look at mm. 44-53, observing these details. The Denouement All that remains to fulfill the “sonata principle” is to find a way to “unwind” the tension that built up in the first half of the movement with the succession of ascending-fifth modulations. And in mm. 55-57, Beethoven does just that, by running through a diatonic harmonic progression of descending fifths. The last significant Authentic Cadence follows in mm. 59-60 (V7 – i). In the coda (mm. 60-69), the first theme returns in the left hand, almost ghost-like, while the right hand arpeggios remind us of the dominant pedal point we heard in the middle of the movement.
The patterned descent of the arpeggios provides a further “unwinding,” leading inevitably to the fundamental bass tone of C- sharp, and a statement of two final tonic chords.

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