The higher education has an effect on the society through policy making funding

The higher education has an effect on the society

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confusing. The higher education has an effect on the society through policy-making, funding, and planning. Internationalization of higher education is the process of integrating an international/intercultural dimension into the teaching, research and service elements of an institution (Jane Knight & International Association of Universities, 2006). The internationalization of higher education is a dynamic process, continuously shaped and reshaped by the international context in which it occurs. As this context changes, so do the purpose, goals, meanings, and strategies of internationalization. Over the past half century, the world has changed dramatically as a result of the demise of colonial hegemonies, the end of the Cold War, the rise of new economic powers, and new regional alliances (Lambert & Usher, 2013). The Uppsala model has described the internationalization of a firm as a process of experiential learning and incremental commitments which leads to an evolutionary development in a foreign market. Johanson and Vahlne formulated this approach in 1977, referring to empirical observations on Swedish manufacturing firms from their studies at the international business department of U ppsala University. One of the basic assumptions of the model is that “the lack of knowledge is an important obstacle to the development of international operations”
2 (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977: 23). Hence, the Uppsala model has dealt fundamentally with knowledge acquisition and learning. It has been observed that the absence of market-specific knowledge has forced the Swedish manufacturing firms to develop their international operations in small steps, undertaking incremental commitment decisions and moving at the beginning to psychically close countries in order to reduce the market uncertainty (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977: 24). Internationalization can be described as “the process of increasing involvement in international operations” (Welch & Luostarinen , 1988: 36). Another definition proposed by Calof and Beamish (1995: 116) denotes internationalization as “the process of adapting firms‟ operations (strategy, structure, resources, etc) to international environments”. Kutschker and Bäurle (1997) enumerated three important dimensions which can be used to determine the degree of internationalization of a company: the number and geographic distance of the foreign market entered; the amount of activities that are carried out in the different countries and the level of integration of these activities. Building on this analysis it has been considered equally noteworthy to delineate the drivers which lead some companies to internationalize. Firms undertake international operations for various reasons (Lam &White, 1999). Some companies internationalize due to the fact that their competitors or customers have been globalized (Ohmae, 1990); whereas others are pushed by the idea of multinationalism as a symbol of success and progress. It also been proven that increased internationalization results in improved profitability (Gerlinger et al., 1989).

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