Mental health care is limited by days of service or

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Mental health care is limited by days of service or dollar amounts; in contrast, in- surance for medical illnesses rarely has such limitations. The population in the United States is be- coming increasingly diverse in terms of cul- ture, race, ethnicity, and family structure. Psychiatric nursing was recognized in the late 1800s although it was not required in nursing education programs until 1950. Psychiatric nursing practice has been pro- foundly influenced by Hildegard Peplau and June Mellow, who wrote about the nurse–client relationship, anxiety, nurse therapy, and interpersonal nursing theory. The American Nurses Association has published standards of care that guide psychiatric-mental health nursing clinical practice. Common concerns of nursing students beginning a psychiatric clinical rotation include fear of saying the wrong thing, not knowing what to do, being rejected by clients, being threatened physically, recog- nizing someone they know as a client, and sharing similar problems or backgrounds with clients. Awareness of one’s feelings, beliefs, atti- tudes, values, and thoughts, called self- awareness, is essential to the practice of psychiatric nursing. The goal of self-awareness is to know oneself so that one’s values, attitudes, and beliefs are not projected to the client, interfering with nursing care. Self-awareness does not mean having to change one’s values or be- liefs unless one desires to do so. For further learning, visit . REFERENCES American Nurses Association. (2000). Scope and Stan- dards of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Practice. Washington, DC: American Nurses Publishing, American Nurses Foundation/American Nurses Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington DC: Author. Appleby, L., & Desai, P. N. (1993). Length of stay and recidivism in schizophrenia: A study of public psy- chiatric hospital patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150 (1), 72–76. Baly, M. (1982). A leading light. Nursing Mirror, 155 (19), 49–51. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). The Department of Health and Human Services on men- tal health issues. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: Author. Doona, M. (1984). At least well cared for . . . Linda Richards and the mentally ill. Image, 16 (2), 51–56. Gollaher, D. (1995). Voice for the mad: The life of Dorothea Dix. New York: The Free Press. Haugland, G., Siegel, C., Hopper, K., & Alexander, M. J. (1997). Mental illness among homeless individuals in a suburban county. Psychiatric Services, 48 (4), 504–509. International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services (IAPRS). (1990). A national directory: Orga- nizations providing psychosocial rehabilitation and related community support services in the United States. Boston: Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University.

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