furs for European made knives, hatchets, tomahawks, pipes, cloth, beads, kettles, and paints.But in 1660, the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) defeated and dispersed the Ottowa too,breaking up their trade monopoly. The Ottowa took refuge in the west, fleeing intheir boats to the islands off Green Bay. Some eventually went farther west to Keweenaw Bay in Lake Superior. Others passed overlad as far as the Mississippi River, carrying their light birch-bark canoes between streams. This group migrated again because of attacks by SIOUX (DAKOTA, LAKOTA, NAKOTA). They ended up on Chequamegon Bay in northern Wisconsin. Ten years later in 1670, when the French promised to protect them from the Iroquois, many Ottowa returned to Manitoulin Island. Many also joined their old trading partners, the Huron, who were now at Mackinac in present-day Michigan. Michigan's northern lower peninsula became an adopted Ottowa homeland.These were just some of many migrations for Ottowa people. In the years to follow, most lives and homelands would be disrupted with increasing non-Indian settlement.PONTAIC'S REBELLION:The French and Indian wars from 1689 to 1763, pitted for the most part French amd Algonquians against English and Iroquois. The Ottowa were loyal allies of the French. Both Quebec and Montreal fell to British forces, and French forces in Europe lost important battles. By the time the French signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which officially gave their North American territory (called New France) to Britain, British troops had matched in and taken control of the French forts in the Great Lakes country.In the spring, summer, and fall of that year, 1763, an Ottowa chief by the name of Pontiac led an uprising of many old Northwest tribes that came to be known asPontiac's Rebellion. Pontiac, an energetic and dynamic man, resenting having newlandlords. He had a solid trade relationship with the French. In his experience,French fur traders generally treated Indians as equals whereas British settlers acted superior. Lord Jeffrey Amherst, the British commander in chief for America, was especially arrogant toward Indians. He was also stingy with supplies. Pontaic, who had previously fought alongside the French against the
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- Fall '15
- History, Ottowa, Pontiac's Rebellion