BUBBLE POWER Report.doc

Figure 4 9 bubble power seminar report 07 the result

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Bubble Power Seminar Report ’07 The result, in terms of energy, is extra ordinary. Hydrodynamic shock-waves create, in a small region at the centre of the collapsing bubble, a peak pressure greater than 10 trillion kPa. For comparison, atmospheric pressure at sea level is101.3 kPa. The peak temperature in this tiny region soars above 100 million degree centigrade about 20.000 times that of the sun’s surface. These extreme conditions within the bubbles-especially in the bubbles at the centre of the cluster, where the shock waves are more intense because of the surrounding implosions-cause the deuterium nuclei to collide at high speed. These collisions are so violent that the positively charged nuclei overcome their natural electrostatic repulsion and fuse. The fusion process creates neutrons which we detect using a scintillator, a device in which the radiation interacts with a liquid that gives off light pulses that can be measured. This process is also accompanied by bursts of photons, which is detected with a photomultiplier. And subsequently, after about 20 microseconds, a shock wave in the liquid reaches the flask’s inner wall, resulting in an audible “pop”, which can be picked up and amplified by a microphone and a speaker. FUSION REACTIONS Figure: 5 Deuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable outputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritium and a proton. 10
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Bubble Power Seminar Report ’07 IF TRITIUM IS PRODUCED: Figure: 6 The total neutron output would include not only the neutrons from deuterium-deuterium fusion, but also neutrons from deuterium-tritium fusion, since the tritium produced in sonofusion remains within the liquid and can fuse with deuterium atoms. Compared with deuterium-deuterium fusion, deuterium-tritium fusion occurs 1000 times more easily and produces more energetic neutrons increasing the neutron yield by about three orders of magnitude . 11
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Bubble Power Seminar Report ’07 SCHEMATIC OF SONOLUMINESCENE & SONOFUSION PHENOMENON Figure: 7 12
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Bubble Power Seminar Report ’07 SEQUENCE OF EVENTS DURING SONOFUSION Figure: 8 13
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Bubble Power Seminar Report ’07 THE EVOLUTION OF LIQUID PRESSURE WITH IN BUBBLE CLUSTER Figure: 9 14
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Bubble Power Seminar Report ’07 SEPARATION OF DEUTERIUM FROM ORDINARY HYDROGEN (PROTIUM) SEPARATION FROM ORDINARY HYDROGEN BY DIFFUSION PROCESS: Deuterium can be isolated from ordinary hydrogen by taking advantage of different rates of diffusion of the two isotopes. Protium, which is lighter, diffuses more readily than deuterium. The diffusion is carried out under reduced pressure. The lower the pressure, the greater is the efficiency of the process. The process of diffusion is carried out in series of porous diffusion units, known as Hertz diffusion units. Each unit contains a porous membrane represented by dotted portion. As mixture is led into the diffusion units under reduced pressure, say from left to right, with the help of the mercury diffusion pumps P1, P2, P3. etc. The heavier component (deuterium) diffuses less readily and
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