Alternatives to dominance and recessiveness a

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Chapter 34 / Exercise 8
Biology
Martin/Solomon
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4.Alternatives to dominance and recessiveness
Unit 9 – Molecular Biology1.Structure of DNAa.Watson & Crick (1950’s), Pauling, Wilkins, Franklin, Chargaffb.DNA = deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogenous basec.Bases: A, C, T, Gd.Double helix: phosphates & sugars make up outside of DNA molecule; bases make up rungs2.Structure of RNAa.Ribose sugar instead of deoxyriboseb.Uracil instead of Thyminec.Single stranded instead of double strandedd.mRNA, tRNA, rRNA3.DNA in the cella.DNA in eukaryotes packaged into chromosomes (linear chromsomes)b.DNA in prokaryotes also packaged into chromosome, but prokaryotes usually only have one chromosome (circular chromosome)c.DNA wrapped around histone proteins to fold appropriately to make a chromosome4.DNA replicationa.Occurs during S phase of Cell Cycleb.Replication forksc.DNA polymerased.RNA primere.Leading strand (is copied continuously)f.Lagging strand (is copied, but enzymes jump) – creates Okazaki fragments which are later joinedtogetherg.DNA ligaseh.Telomerase – keeps chromosome ends from degrading
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Biology
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Chapter 34 / Exercise 8
Biology
Martin/Solomon
Expert Verified
5.DNA repaira.Mismatch repair mechanismb.Nucleotide excision repair6.Transcriptiona.DNA makes RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)b.RNA polymerasec.Template strandd.Terminatione.Exons & introns7.Translationa.RNA makes proteinsb.rRNA + protein makes ribosomesc.mRNA attaches to ribosomed.mRNA has codonse.tRNA with appropriate amino acids attach to ribosome when anticodon (of tRNA) matches codon (of mRNA)f.amino acid chain growsg.codon chart (shows which amino acids are brought in when a particular codon on mRNA is read by ribosome8.Gene regulationa.Gene expression – turning on a geneb.Very complexc.lacoperon in prokaryotes – an example of gene regulationUnit 10 – Biotechnology1.Manipulating genetic materiala.DNA extraction from celli.Open cell membrane using detergentsii.Enzymes used to destroy macromolecules (except DNA)iii.DNA is precipitated out of solution using alcoholb.Gel electrophoresis – uses electric current to separate charged molecules (DNA has phosphates,which have a negative chargec.DNA is stained with a dyed.PCR – Polymerase Chain Reaction – copies sections of DNA to make multiple copies2.Cloninga.DNA fragment placed in bacterial plasmidb.Plasmid - vectorc.Plasmid inserted into bacteria for replication (recombinant DNA)d.Restriction enzymes (endonucleases)3.Reproductive cloninga.Remove nucleus from host eggb.Place diploid nucleus into egg
c.Dolly – first cloned agricultural animal4.Genetic engineeringa.GMO (genetically engineered organism)b.Transgenici.Medicinesii.Plants (herbicide or pest resistance)iii.Bt plants, FlavrSavr Tomato5.Genetic mapping6.Genome sequencing

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