Self efficacy beliefs concerning ability to perform

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Self-efficacy- beliefs concerning ability to perform the behaviors needed to achieve desired outcomes Performance Attainments- most important, previous success and failure experiences on similar tasks Observational Learning- observation of the behaviors and consequences to similar models in similar situations Verbal Persuasion- Encouraging or discouraging messages received from others Emotional Arousal- Arousal that can be interpreted as enthusiasm or anxiety, usually decreases self-efficacy o How do people go about increasing self-efficacy? Observational learning, Verbal Persuasion Set specific, behavioral, measurable goals Set performance, not outcome, goals Set difficult but realistic goals Set positive, not negative goals Set short-range as well as long-term goals Set definite time spans for achievement o According to Mischel, what accounts for behavior? When is behavior likely to be consistent?
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Expect people to behave in a consistent way over time and across situations so if someone behaves in a way that is inconsistent with past behaviors, we make excuses for atypical behavior Consistency paradox- expect and perceive a high level of consistency in people’s behavior, but actual level of consistency is low Cognitive-affect personality system (CAPS): both the person and the situation matter, dynamic interplay between characteristics a person brings to situation and characteristics of situation If…then…Behavioral Consistencies- consistency in behavior, but is found within similar situations There is consistency in behavior within similar situations but not global consistencies o What are the strengths and weaknesses of social-cognitive theories? Strength: strong scientific base, brings together two perspectives, strong research traditions, constructs can be defined, measured, researched, translate insights derived from other perspectives Not consistent amongst different cultures or situations Inconsistency between person’s behavior across situations is manifestation of stable underlying cognitive affective personality structure that reacts to certain situations Personality Assessment o What methods are used to assess personality? Personality scales and self-ratings Interview data Structured Interviews- used to collect research data or make diagnosis, contains set of specific questions that are administered to every participant and are standardized Reports, ratings by other people Behavioral assessment Physiological measures Responses on projective tests Psychological tests, including self-report measures and projective tests to interpret ambiguous stimuli Physiological measures, such as emotional reactivity or levels of cortical arousal Personal websites: identity claims that give greater control and greater chance for self-expression since every detail is chosen by author Personality tests should be:
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