Besides, in the Third World countries the public authorities have to manage crises resulting from social upheavals like caste conflicts, communal, tribal and ethnic violence. This role also has enhanced the importance of public bureaucracy 2.6 The rapid growth of population The rapid increase in size of population of most nations; more specifically in the developing nations, has contributed to the growing importance of Public administration. Population growth has complicated the problem of providing food, shelter, education, sanitation, and health facilities to the people. The growth of metropolitan cities has resulted in congestion, growth of slums, housing scarcity, insufficient water supply, inadequate transportation, increasing crime rate etc. Thus, Public administration is the machinery through which government is tackling these acute social and economic problems. 2.7 The emergence of welfare state The emergence of welfare state in modern times has also increased the activities and responsibilities of Public administration. The welfare state is a social service state. It is a positive state. Its motto is promotion of good life for the people. In the interest of socio-economic justice, the positive welfare state acts as a protector, a dispenser of social services, a manager of key industries and banking services, and a controller and regulator of private economic enterprises. Page of 14 52
G. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPROACHES APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION The emergence of the study of Public Administration can be dated back to 1887, the year in which the political scientist, Woodrow Wilson published an article entitled The Study of Administration. Since then, there have been different approaches to the study of public administration when this subject as a separate academic discipline was born. These are relatively distinct approaches that emanate from the different structures and functions of administrative activities. These approaches—briefly reviewed below —are best regarded as ways in which to approach the study of administrative activity, rather than as theories. Historical Approach The theorists of the historical approach believe that knowledge of history is essential for a thorough study of any field. The historical approach sought to explain the administrative institutions in the light of their past. It analyses the administrative institutions by tracing their development within a particular time span. Therefore, this approach organizes and interprets the information relating to administrative institutions in a chronological order. The father of the study of Public administration Woodrow Wilson emphasized the historical method as one of the two best suited methods (the other being comparative method) for the study of Public Administration.
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- Summer '17