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Jefferson’s election in 1800 and the ascendency of his Republican party is significant because it demonstrated how a political party can serve as a bridge or connection between the legislative and executive branches with the president understandably serving as the acknowledged leader of the party. Indeed, as subsequent history shows, the interests of political parties more frequently than not outweigh or trump those institutional interests upon which the Founders relied for preserving the division of powers. The second development involved a significant change in the mode of nominating candidates for the presidency and the manner of their election. On this score, Jackson’s election to the presidency in 1828 is an acknowledged turning point: His nomination was secured through appeals to the people rather than through a congressional party caucus, the nominating process up to 1824, and his election rested largely on the popular vote since most of the states by this time allowed the people to vote for electors pledged to the candidates of their choice. This meant, as Jackson was to maintain in various contexts, that the presidency possessed as firm a popular foundation as Congress. Put in other terms, the Founders believed, consistent with the historical circumstances which gave rise to the separation doctrine, that the will of the people was most authentically expressed by Congress and, in particular, the House of Representatives, but given the development of popularly based parties and mode 32. U.S. Const. amend XIV, sec. 5. 33. U.S. Const. amend XVI. 273
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