Economic realities force drop in birth rates to the

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ECONOMIC REALITIES FORCE DROP IN BIRTH RATES TO THE POINT WHERE GROWTH IS STAGNANT OR VERY SLOW Global Population THE LOW-GROWTH NORTH ZERO POPULATION GROWTH A LEVEL OF REPRODUCTION THAT MAINTAINS POPULATION AT A STEADY STATE POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES HAVE SHOWN SLOW DOWNS IN BIRTH RATES “UNDERPOPULATION” MAY BE A PROBLEM! THE HIGH-GROWTH SOUTH POPULATION GROWTH IS A CRITICAL PROBLEM IN SEVERAL POOR COUNTRIES WHILE BIRTH RATES HAVE FALLEN (SIX TO FOUR CHILDREN PER WOMAN), 180 NATIONS ARE IN TROUBLE OF OVERPOPULATION IN SHORT, FOR THE WORLD, FERTILITY IS DROPPING, BUT SO IS MORTALITY AMONG CHILDREN CHALLENGE IS TO CONTROL BIRTH RATES IN POOR COUNTRIES AS WE DID DEATH IN THE PAST MODERNITY FOUR MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS: DECLINE OF SMALL, TRADITIONAL TOWNS HIGH-TECH COMMUNICATIONS PUTS SMALL TOWNS IN TOUCH WITH THE WORLD EXPANSION OF PERSONAL CHOICE AN UNENDING SERIES OF OPTIONS REFERRED TO AS “INDIVIDUALIZATION” INCREASING DIVERSITY IN BELIEFS MODERNIZATION PROMOTES A MORE RATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC WORLD-VIEW FUTURE ORIENTATION AND GROWING AWARENESS OF TIME PEOPLE LIVING IN INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS TEND TO FOCUS MORE ON THE FUTURE THAN ON THE PAST Migration
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VOLUNTARY MIGRATION USUALLY DUE TO ECONOMIC PUSH AND PULL FACTORS INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION FORCED MIGRATION DUE TO WAR OR OTHER SOCIAL CONFLICT IMMIGRATION MOVEMENT INTO A TERRITORY EMIGRATION MOVEMENT OUT OF A TERRITORY RATES IN-MIGRATION RATE THE NUMBER ENTERING FOR EVERY 1,000 PEOPLE OUT MIGRATION RATE NUMBER LEAVING FOR EVERY 1,000 PEOPLE IN THE TERRITORY NET-MIGRATION RATE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IN- AND OUT-MIGRATION NUMBERS GROWTH IN U.S. CITIES COLONIAL SETTLEMENT (1624-1800) CAPITALISM’S IMPACT UPON SMALL VILLAGES ENSURED TRANSFORMATION URBAN EXPANSION (1800-1860) TOWNS SPRINGING UP ALONG TRANSPORTATION ROUTES THE GREAT METROPOLIS (1860-1950) IMPACT OF CIVIL WAR (FACTORY GROWTH) USHERED IN GROWTH ONE-FIFTH OF THE POPULATION LIVED IN CITIES URBAN DECENTRALIZATION (1950- TO PRESENT) DESERTION OF DOWNTOWN AREAS FOR OUTLYING SUBURBS METROPOLIS AND CENTRALIZATION A LARGE CITY THAT DOMINATES THE AREA THE SUBURBS AND DECENTRALIZATION URBAN AREAS BEYOND THE POLITICAL BOUNDARIES OF A CITY
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URBAN RENEWAL EFFORTS HAVE GONE ON IN ATTEMPTS TO REVITALIZE CENTRAL CITIES MEGALOPOLIS A VAST URBAN AREA CONTAINING A NUMBER OF CITIES AND THEIR SURROUNDING SUBURBS: “SUPERCITIES” Modernity as Mass Society MASS SOCIETY IS A TERM THAT DRAWS UPON THE IDEAS OF TOENNIES, DURKHEIM, AND WEBER MODERNIZATION IS VIEWED AS THE EMERGENCE OF MASS SOCIETY MASS SOCIETY A SOCIETY IN WHICH INDUSTRY AND EXPANDING BUREAUCRACY HAVE ERODED TRADITIONAL SOCIAL TIES POWER IN A MASS SOCIETY LIES IN THE HANDS OF LARGE BUREAUCRACIES LAWS THAT MANDATE STANDARDIZED EDUCATION, PRODUCT CONTROL, EXTENSIVE RECORD KEEPING, AND SO ON
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