Remote Sensing - a tool for environmental observation

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An internet site with the latest information about the remote sensing course, the digital full- colour copies of the lecture notes and exercises and some other information is available on: http://www.geog.uu.nl/RemoteSensing/ Steven de Jong Raymond Sluiter Elisabeth Addink Maarten Zeijlmans
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2 Contents Preface Contents 1. Introduction 4 1.1 A Remote Sensing System 1.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1.3 Sources of Electromagnetic Energy 1.4 Atmospheric Transmission 1.5 Interactions Mechanisms with the Earth Surface 1.6 Sensors and Scanners 1.7 Colour Technology 2. Multi-Spectral Scanning 26 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Meteorological Satellites and their Sensors 2.3 Earth Resources Satellites 2.4 Airborne Sensors 3. Remote Sensing in the Microwave Region (RADAR) 38 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Principle of a Radar System 3.3 Radar Wavelengths 3.4 Spatial Resolution 3.5 SAR: Synthetic Aperture Radar 3.6 Geometry of Radar Images 3.7 Radar Return and Image Signatures 3.8 Radar Satellites 3.9 Examples 4. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing 54 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Temperature and Emissivity 4.3 Heat Transfer 4.4 Thermal Properties of Materials 4.5 Thermal Sensors 4.6 Heat Capacity Mapping Mission: HCMM 4.7 Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Images
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3 Contents Cont’d 5. Image Corrections and Analysis Techniques 62 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Digital Image Structure 5.3 Radiometric Corrections 5.4 Geometric Corrections 5.5 Image Enhancement 5.6 Digital Image Filtering 5.7 Spectral Rationing 5.8 Digital Image Transformations 5.9 Image Classification 6. Image Interpretation 86 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Spectral Behaviour of Vegetation 6.3 Spectral Behaviour of Soils 6.4 Multi-temporal Remote Sensing & Change Detection 6.5 Imaging Spectroscopy 6.6 Remote Sensing projects in the Netherlands 7. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems 98 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Data Integration Issues 7.3 Modelling Spatial Processes in a GIS using Remote Sensing Data Information sources and important addresses 99 National and International Periodicals 101 Glossary 103 References and further reading 112
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4 Chapter 1: Introduction Remote sensing is a technique to observe the earth surface or the atmosphere from out of space using satellites (space borne) or from the air using aircrafts (airborne). Remote sensing is also called ‘earth observation’ or ‘teledetection’. Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. It registers reflected or emitted radiation. Remote sensing techniques enable us to study objects without being in touch with that object or without interfering with the object. Hence, remote sensing leaves the object undisturbed while observing, that is one of the major advantages of remote sensing compared to laboratory analyses or field experiments. Figure 1.1 illustrates the principle of data acquisition and data analysis using electromagnetic sensing of the surface of the earth.
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