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–doesn’t care about internal structure.Function/validation –similar to system testing, but often used to test the functionality of the system against requirements. Regression testing –rerunning a portion of a test scenario to make sure that changes have not introduced new errors in other parts of app Parallel –feed test data into two systems (new and old) and compare results Sociability –confirm that the new system can operate in its target environment without affecting other systems. Risks associated with software development: New system does not meet users’ needsExceeded cost/time estimates Auditor should review success of project and management discipline over project. Alternative Development approaches: Agile development –used when don’t have much in the way of requirementsand things are changing frequently. Designed to flexibly handle changes to the system being developed. Use of small timeboxed subprojects and greater reliance on tacit knowledge –knowledge in people’s heads. No real requirements baseline. Not much documentation. Less testing. PM becomes more of an advocate and facilitator rather than a manager. Can help detect risks early on. Lot’s of face to face work. Prototyping –creating system through controlled trial and error. Can lead to poor controls in finished system because focused on what user wants and what user sees. Change control
11 complicated also –changes happen so quickly, they are rarely documented or approved. Aka evolutionary development. Reduces risk associated with not understanding user requirements. Just include screens, interactive edits and reports (no real process programs) Rapid Application Development –RAD –methodology to develop important systems quickly, while reducing costs but maintaining quality. –small dev teams, evolutionary prototypes, Automates large portions of the SDLC via CASE and imposes rigid time frames. Prototyping is core to this. Skip documentation, less emphasis on requirements Object Oriented –data and software together to form object –sort of a blackbox –other objects talk to the object’s interface and don’t care what’s inside. Encapsulation provides high degree of security over the data. Component based –outgrowth of object oriented –assembling applications from cooperating packages of executable software that make services available through defined interfaces. In timeboxed development, having a baseline of requirements is important since it is so timebound. Web Based App Dev. Components of Web Services First key component: XML language called SOAP is used to define APIs. Will work with any O/S and programming language that understands XML. Easier than RPC approach because modules can be loosely coupled so a change to one component does not normally require changes to others. WSDL –web services description language –also based on XML. Used to identify the SOAP