Native American Overview 9/30/15Indians- name given by the Columbus men when they arrived in the Caribbean because they believed that they had landed in India; misnomer oStands for the people who were in the Americas when the Europeans arrived in the 1400sSiberian Land Bridge- idea that there were no human beings in America to begin with, sometime between ~20-40,000 years ago (just an estimate) people crossed Beringia during the Ice Age: solid land bridge between Siberia and Alaska oSupposedly crossed the land bridge for better hunting because the animals crossed the bridge as well
oFirst wave- into N. America, second wave- into the Northwestern Bay, third wave- into the Pacific oBeringiantheory- primary theory about migration oEstimates as high as 100,000 million and as low as 5 million for North and South America when Columbus first arrived; in N. America alone 18 million on the high end and 1 million on the low end Early estimates believed to be too high so low figures created recently Current estimate: 15-20 million people when Columbus first came but in reality no one iscompletely sure DowntoEarthOverkill hypothesis: by the time the Europeans were roaming through America all of the animals were gone, what happened to them? oTheory: hunters killed them too fast so that they were unable to reproduce; hunters hunted too fast and too well oClimate change is another theoryExtraterrestrials : about 12,000 years ago a comet came over North America causing a massive fire which raged on for years-> caused climate change and extinction of animals oAnother theory about why animals that existed when the Native Americans lived had gone extinct by the time the Europeans came Ecocide of Native Americans: Donald Rindey and Bruce JohansenoAttempt to answer the question of whether the Native Americans were natural ecologists; were they really environmentalists or were they not? Chief Seal’th: city of Seattle, Washington named after himoSpeech in 1854- controversial, debated whether it was really spoken by him or not, embellishedoRefers to the extermination of the buffalo which had not yet happened Ecological stereotype: idea that the Natives were environmentalists; challenged by many modern scholars Wilderness in America: discusses the Eurasian biases as they come across the Atlantic, English migrants looked at N. America as a wildernessRed, White and Black: written by Gary Nash; refers to the Iroquois Diversity: word throughout pre- Columbian North America, way that societies were organized were quite diverseoCentralized and urban cultures existed in Mexico such as the Mayans and AztecsoChumash living in Santa Barbara, up and down the coast of SLO and Malibu- canoes that could reach the Channel Islands; in the middle Pueblo Indians who built pueblos/ houses oGreat Plains Indians followed the buffalo and left almost no imprint on the land oIndians varied- highly structured down to those who left no dent on the land
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- Fall '15
- Thirteen Colonies, National Park Service, John Muir, Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite National Park