4. How to encourage group cohesiveness: a. Make the group smaller. b. Encourage agreement with group goals. c. Increase the time members spend together. d. Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group. e. Stimulate competition with other groups. f. Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members. g. Physically isolate the group. B. Group Property 6: Diversity 1. The final property of groups we consider is diversity in the group’s membership, the degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another. 2. A great deal of research is being done on how diversity influences group performance. a. Overall, studies identify both benefits and costs from group diversity. Diversity appears to increase group conflict, especially in the early stages of a group’s tenure which often lowers group morale and raises dropout rates. Teams in which members’ values or opinions differ tend to experience more conflict, but leaders who can get the group to focus on the task at hand and encourage group learning are able to reduce these conflicts and enhance discussion of group issues. 3. One possible side effect in diverse teams—especially those that are diverse in terms of surface level characteristics—is faultlines , or perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex, race, age, work experience, and education. a. Research on faultlines has shown that splits such as these are generally detrimental to group functioning and performance. b. Overall, although research on faultlines suggests that diversity in groups is a potential double-edged sword, recent work indicates they can be strategically employed to improve performance. VI.Group Decision Making
1.Groupthink is related to norms. 2.Groupshift describes the way of discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving ata solution. 3.Groupthink
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- Fall '08
- Sociology, Group development, B. Group, Group Outcomes, Group Property, Foundations of Group Behavior