In normal operations, the staff supervisor has line commands but with recognized limitations such as coordination between line and staff personnel can be achieved without undue friction. Failure to recognize these line and staff relationship is the greatest and most frequent source of friction and a barrier to effective coordination. The advantage of this kind would be - it combines staff specialist or units with line organization so that service of knowledge can be provided line personnel by specialist. Classification of Line, Staff, and Auxiliary Function Whatever their method of grouping internal activities, all bureaucratic agencies segregate the function of line, staff, and auxiliary personnel. The reasons for this tripartite classification are best explained by examining each of the functions. Line Functions: Line functions are the “backbone” of the police department ; they include such operations as patrol, criminal investigation, and traffic control, as well as supervision of the personnel performing those operations. Line functions are carried out but “line members,” including the patrol officer, the detective, the sergeant, the lieutenant, the captain, and the chief of police . Line members are responsible for: Carrying out the majors purposes of the police department. Delivering the services provided by the department. Dealing directly with the department’s clientele. Making final decisions with respect to the activities they perform. Staff Functions: Staff functions are those operations designed to support the line functions , Staff members are necessarily advisors who are typically assigned to planning, research, legal advice, budgeting, and educational services . Staff members are often civilians with specialized training who serve within the department but do not deal with daily operations on the street. Their main function is to study police policies and practices and to offer proposals to the chief executive of the department . Staff personnel tend to be: Highly specialized. Involved in an advisory capacity Detached from the public Not directly responsible for the decisions made by department executive. Auxiliary Functions: Auxiliary functions involve the logistical operations of the department . These include training, communications, jailing, maintenance, record keeping, motor vehicles, and similar operations. ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATON Specialization The grouping of activities and segregation of line, staff, and auxiliary functions are large-scale examples of specialization within a bureaucratic organization. 29
Specialization of an individual level is also important in all organizations, since it must be expected that some members will know more, perform better and contribute more in one area of activity than in others, Disparities in job ability among persons may be the result of physical attributes, mental aptitude, skills, interests education, training, motivation, or adaptation , among other factors.
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