41 There are only two White languages in South Africa English and Afrikaaner 17

41 there are only two white languages in south africa

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41 There are only two ”White” languages in South Africa, English and Afrikaaner. 17
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not be comparable directly since they might not be evaluated at the same values of the distribution of Blacks. Thus, we need to create a common grid and interpolate values on this grid for the observed and counterfactual segregation curves. Our common grid will be the all the percentile of the conditional distribution of Blacks. For inference, we do not know precisely the sampling distribution of this func- tional. Then, we will bootstrap the statistic and make inference from the sample of the bootstrapped statistics. As it seems that it is far from normally distributed, 42 we will report the 2.5% and the 97.5% percentiles of the bootstrap distribution for the standard 95% confidence bands. 4 Data description Our dataset comes from the Community Profiles of the South African Censuses of 1996, 2001, and 2011. They correspond to the 100% count of each census aggre- gated to different geographical levels to preserve the anonymity of the respondents. These geographical levels range from the enumeration area to the province, except in 2001 where it ranges from the subplace to the province. When measuring segregation, we are very concerned about the geographic level and its stability over time. The geographic level has to be fine enough to represent something meaningful in terms of individuals’ reality, but it should not be too fine too. If the geographic level is to aggregated everyone is integrated while everyone is segregated if the grid is too fine. Thus, we will concentrate on the subplace level because it is the finest level available throughout all the censuses. But primarily because it corresponds to some local housing market which individuals are using when they refer to where they live. However, the subplace level does not remain stable over the different censuses. But we are going to overcome this problem by ”freezing the history”. 43 The idea is to identify all the boundaries changes with respect to the 2001 subplaces by overlaying the other boundaries. Thus, we can compute the share of each area that was/will be in each subplaces in 2001. Then, we reallocate individuals with respect to these weights and reconstitute some adjusted version of the subplace level in 1996 and 2011 to the 2001 subplace boundaries. Implicitly, this method assumes that individuals are uniformly distributed across space in their respective area which might not be the case in practice. However, this assumption becomes less and less heroic as the grid used to adjust is finer because individuals become more and more homogeneous. Thus, we use the enumeration area levels in 1996 and 2001 which represents in average 100 individuals to aggregate them back to the 2001 subplace level. 42 The densities of the bootstrap sample can be obtained on request to the author.
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