Wanted to extend the protections awarded in these

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wanted to extend the protections awarded in these treaties to other subjects--mostly Christians. French government entered into first protectorate treaty of this kind, and the Great Powers began interfering with Ottoman state in the name of Christian watchdogs, but thiswas not welcomed by Ottoman authorityNon-Muslims chose to be protected by foreign powers, and were able to do so with a newfound independence that placed them above the jurisdiction of tax laws etc., imposed by OE.Interference by foreign powers→ increased want of empowerment for Christian subjects→ revolts and demands for equality→ these were subdued; this period was very violent→some non-Muslim communities were able to gain independence with foreign backing. I.e. Serbian revolt (1804) European powers could mingle in OE affairs in the name of “humanitarian interventions”even while weakening the empire in its attempts, and in its unrelated pursuits. Became clear that Muslim-Christian equality was necessary to keep OE from dissolving; Tanzimat: aim to bind Christians to the state to quell instabilityImperial Rescript of 1839, forcing OE to make changes they didn’t ideologistically endorse. Many changes were not actually set into place until 1880s.Reform Edictof 1856- principle of citizenship for all people in the OE, reformed the milletsystemAmended penal law in 1840, 1850-45, 1857, 1877; final form was French, Western,
and eased out Islamic penal laws→ led to chaos initially, with Christian judges and opinions not being taken seriously on judicial courts1876; Term Ottomanfirst used to describe a citizen of the empire with no relation to religionReforms attemptedto bring together Muslims and non-Muslims but was unsuccessful at this task because “the conceptual basis for such transformation simply didn’t exist” (31)Millet system remained popular despite attempts to reform itOttoman Empire Post-Reform, 19th CenturyMost difficult aspect for Muslims to lose was their sense of superiority above the “infidel”Poor Muslims had no similar escape that Christians in the Ottoman empire could attain; they couldn’t find support from a foreign power and had to serve in the military, etc. These privileges of the Christians in the E lead to hostilities from those who believed they didn’t deserve them. Efforts to preserve the Muslim superiority in the OE were foretold to be bloody. Bernard Lewis: “rational” attacks on Christians by Muslims due to their refusal to give up power. Massacres against Armenians had become routine by the late 19th century.Armenians and The World, 19th CenturyComplaints made by Armenian Communal Council and sent to OE government, and led to a commission of Muslims and non-Muslims to punish those responsible etc..London Protocol of 1877 was not supported by OE, but drawn up by Great Powers who wanted the right to intervene if the reform of treatment to Christians in OE was not satisfactory.After Russo-Ottoman war, Armenians asked that the lands do not return to the Ottomans, or if

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