Homogeneity in the goods services and tenants by the

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homogeneity in the goods, services and tenants. By the late-1970s, shopping centres were seen as growth poles that would stimulate future residential development. Regional shopping malls were built at the intersection of major highways. The 1970s was also characterised by downtown and inner-city revitalization. As a result, new retail market niches were created. Demand led to the importance of specialized shops. Finally, during the 1980s, shopping centres, such as the West Edmonton Mall, were also associated with entertainment and tourism. The wholesale trade changed radically after 1945. The growing importance of truck transport (over rail transport) induced the peripheral reconcentration of terminals and warehouses. INDUSTRIAL DECENTRALIZATION The rising cost of downtown land, increased
worker mobility, a greater dependence on trucks, and use of government incentives were collectively responsible for the decentralization of industries. Also, the need to stock pile components and parts led to the horizontal expansion of the factories. This, in turn, led to their proliferation and expansion in the peripheral areas. URBAN REALMS According to Vance (1990), there are a series of urban realms surrounding the urban core. The core continues to be the commercial centre and is dominated by the CBD. Urban realms are the product of freeway expansion and suburban in-filling. Each realm has retail, commercial and residential land-uses but lack self-sufficiency. People need to cross the boundaries of each realm in order to work, shop, socialize, etc. Consequently, urban residents do not use the entire metropolis except when attending to certain needs. SUMMARY Centralized urban areas have experienced a continued de-industrialization and the decentralization of industries, retail activities, offices, and people. However, there has been evidence of rejuvenation (i.e. gentrification) in some downtown districts which has abated urban decay and neighbourhood abandonment. The suburbs have continued to grow and in some instances pose challenge to the central core. Thus, the modern city is seen to possess a complex morphology. The future city will bear the imprints of emerging global economy. The growing importance of multinational corporations, development of faster means of transport, communication and the political changes are all expected to leave an impact on the city.

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