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Bartolome de Las Casas- First Bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542,which limited the ability of the Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor for them. ColonialEconomiesThe vast increase of mineral resources led to economic growth and labor systems and disaster.●Silver mines of Peru and Mexico and sugar plantation in Brazil dominated the economicdevelopment of colonial Latin America.●The Spanish and portuguese produced gold worth millions of pesos; the first silver strike occurred in mexico in the 1530’s and 1540’s ●1545, the Spanish discovered a rich deposit in the Americas at Potosi in Alto Peru (Bolivian Region).●While the original process of smelting devastated Spanish forests, the process of using mercury to refine silver damage the work force of the native peoples.●Until the 1540’s the population of Mexico was divided into labor systems in the encomienda system; reforms such as the New Laws were made due to rapid death because of diseases●In Spanish south America the native populations weren't as affected by disease, as a result, of the mita system, which one in every seven males were required to spend 2-4 months working in the Spanish mines.●In Spanish America mining centers of
Global trade increased dueto growth in mineral production. Mexico and Peru exercised global economicinfluence●Large amounts of silver flowed across the pacific ocean to the Spanish colony of the philippines, where it paid for spices, silks and pottery. ●The rich mines of Peru, Bolivia, and Mexico stimulated urban population growth .●Society inColonial LatinAmericaFrom colonial contacts among Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans; new cultures and new peoples resulted. ●Since Spanish born peoples didn’t exist in the New World, hidalgo's, or lesser nobles, consisted along with merchants, artisans, miners, and lawyers. ●Europeans dominated the highests levels of the church and government as well commerce, while wealthy American born creoles controlled colonial agricultural and mining. ●Mass epidemics and widespread relocation of the natives peoples, they lost their cultural diversity and became a single culture group●Lower-class native peoples lost their land rights, marriage ties, and religious freedom; however the natives managed to avoid oppression and some abuses. ●People brought from various parts of Africa retained different cultures;their various traditions blended and mixed with Europeanand Amerindian languages and beliefs to distinctive cultures. ●European settlers would often sire offspring and they refused to acknowledge by native and/or African peoples- was more common in Spanish Peru, and were called mestizos, and the latter generally in brazil with the natives mulatto●A mixture of native and African peoples also occurred heavily, resulting in a third new class, the caste class Section TitleMain IdeasExamples that support it