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influential sector of the economy. New patterns of global trade emerged as well.■Industrialization began in England and spread to parts of Europe during the late 1700s and early1800s—the era of the Industrial Revolution. During the late 1800s, a period often referred to asthe Second Industrial Revolution, industrial practices matured and spread further, expanding toinclude steel, electricity, chemical industries, and petroleum. Gradually and to varying extents,industrialization spread to other parts of the world.■The non-Western world adopted industrialization in different ways. Sometimes, Europeanimperial powers introduced it to their colonies. In other cases, non-Western rulers imposedindustrialization from above, or at least attempted to do so.■Capitalism became the dominant mode of economic organization in the industrial-era West.Over time, its influence became global.■Reactions to the stresses of early industrialization, and to the more exploitative aspects of earlycapitalism, included trade-union activism, utopian socialism, Marxism, and anarchy.■Commerce and banking—the foundations of a money-based economy, as opposed to a land-based one—grew in importance. Banks, stock markets, and other modern financial instrumentsbecame more solidly established.■See “Social Structures” below for the relationship between economic growth during this era andreliance on coerced and semi-coerced forms of labor.Social Structures, 1750–1900Europeclass diversification (impact of revolutions and industrialization; growth of industrial working class,rise of middle class)serfdom in Russia (uprisings, emancipation)Siberian exile and prison labormigration to the Americas (Irish Potato Famine, anti-Jewish pogroms)emergence of modern feminism and suffragette movements (Mary Wollstonecraft, Olympe deGouges, Emmeline Pankhurst)industrialization and women (domestic sphere, cult of domesticity)Middle EastmilletsTanzimat reforms and limited social liberalizationcorvée labor (Suez Canal)
Africaracially segregationist policies in Western-controlled colonies (native elites)East African slave tradeAtlantic slave tradeIndian migration to East and South Africaimperialism’s impact on women’s rolesEast (and Central) Asiasocial stratification and increased tensions in Qing China (opium addiction, Taiping Rebellion)social stratification in Tokugawa JapanMeiji Restoration in Japan: rise of merchants, samurai privilege abolishedindentured servitude (coolie labor)Chinese migration throughout Southeast Asiamissionary efforts against Chinese foot bindingSouth (and Southeast) Asiaand Oceaniaracially segregationist policies in Western-controlled colonies (native elites)British undermining of Hindu caste systemindentured servitude (coolie labor)transportation to AustraliaIndian migration throughout Southeast Asia, East Africa, and South AfricaChinese migration throughout Southeast AsiaWhite Australia PolicyBritish struggle against satiAmericasclass diversification (impact of revolutions and industrialization; growth of industrial working class,