New patterns of global trade emerged as well

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influential sector of the economy. New patterns of global trade emerged as well. Industrialization began in England and spread to parts of Europe during the late 1700s and early 1800s—the era of the Industrial Revolution. During the late 1800s, a period often referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution, industrial practices matured and spread further, expanding to include steel, electricity, chemical industries, and petroleum. Gradually and to varying extents, industrialization spread to other parts of the world. The non-Western world adopted industrialization in different ways. Sometimes, European imperial powers introduced it to their colonies. In other cases, non-Western rulers imposed industrialization from above, or at least attempted to do so. Capitalism became the dominant mode of economic organization in the industrial-era West. Over time, its influence became global. Reactions to the stresses of early industrialization, and to the more exploitative aspects of early capitalism, included trade-union activism, utopian socialism, Marxism, and anarchy. Commerce and banking—the foundations of a money-based economy, as opposed to a land- based one—grew in importance. Banks, stock markets, and other modern financial instruments became more solidly established. See “Social Structures” below for the relationship between economic growth during this era and reliance on coerced and semi-coerced forms of labor. Social Structures, 1750–1900 Europe class diversification (impact of revolutions and industrialization; growth of industrial working class, rise of middle class) serfdom in Russia (uprisings, emancipation) Siberian exile and prison labor migration to the Americas (Irish Potato Famine, anti-Jewish pogroms) emergence of modern feminism and suffragette movements (Mary Wollstonecraft, Olympe de Gouges, Emmeline Pankhurst) industrialization and women (domestic sphere, cult of domesticity) Middle East millets Tanzimat reforms and limited social liberalization corvée labor (Suez Canal)
Africa racially segregationist policies in Western-controlled colonies (native elites) East African slave trade Atlantic slave trade Indian migration to East and South Africa imperialism’s impact on women’s roles East (and Central) Asia social stratification and increased tensions in Qing China (opium addiction, Taiping Rebellion) social stratification in Tokugawa Japan Meiji Restoration in Japan: rise of merchants, samurai privilege abolished indentured servitude (coolie labor) Chinese migration throughout Southeast Asia missionary efforts against Chinese foot binding South (and Southeast) Asia and Oceania racially segregationist policies in Western-controlled colonies (native elites) British undermining of Hindu caste system indentured servitude (coolie labor) transportation to Australia Indian migration throughout Southeast Asia, East Africa, and South Africa Chinese migration throughout Southeast Asia White Australia Policy British struggle against sati Americas class diversification (impact of revolutions and industrialization; growth of industrial working class,

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