Hub commonly used component that connects devices on

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Hub – commonly used component that connects devices on the LAN, multiple ports, packets at one port is copied to all other ports on the hub 117. Switch – sends packets only to the computer that is the intended recipient, multiple ports 118. Gateways - used to transmit data between LANs of different network topologies or network operating systems 119. Network Interface Card (NIC) – used by a computer to transmit and receive data over a network 120. Network Topologies – Bus, Ring, and Star a. Bus Network – two endpoints and all computers connect to a single wire or cable, data can collide, the sending device waits and retransmits, however there is potential for the network to go down
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b. Ring Network – has no endpoints and all computers are connected in a continuous loop, no data collisions, all data flows in one direction, if connection on the Ring is broken the network may go down c. Star Network – all computers are connected to a central computer called a hub, hub prevents collisions, if the hub goes down the network stops 121. HTML – set of special instructions used to create web pages , tags are used to structure and format web pages and links to other documents 122. IPS – Internet Service Provider 123. Bandwidth – the amount of data that can be sent through a communications channel in a given amount of time, data includes text, voice, and video, typically measured in bits per second (bps) 124. Firewall – designed to protect a computer or network from intruders, can be hardware or software or both 125. Virus – program that reproduces itself or by attaching to another program 126. Trojan Horse – a program disguised as an innocent program, but has a malicious agenda (Examples: screen savers, games etc.) 127. Encryption – coded messages – uses math formulas, cryptographic algorithm and a key that is a number, word, phrase 128. Decryption – process of converting cyphertext to plaintext 129. Fiber Optic cable – transmits beams of light rather than electricity, more secure and can carry more data than copper telephone wire 130. Infrared Transmission – sends data via light waves at a frequency too low for the human eyes, transmission is limited to short range, infrared ports can be found on some notebook computers PDAs, mice and printers 131. Plaintext or Cleartext - message that is NOT encrypted 132. Cyphertext – message which is encrypted 133. Public Encryption – uses two keys (used to transmit credit card data in secure e-commerce transactions also used for secure email – software is called PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) free off web 134. SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and TLS – protocols used to securely transmit credit card data over the Internet, credit card numbers are encrypted 135. Hash Function – using a string of characters of any length and coverts it into a string of a specific length, used often on Passwords 136. Rule-Based detection software – used by businesses for online transactions to prevent fraud, Example rules: billing and shipping address with checking card number and against the stolen database credit card registry 137. HTTP – (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – set of rules for exchanging information over the web
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138.
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