These symptoms may be caused by other health

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These symptoms may be caused by other health conditions. Symptoms include: Rapid, labored breathing (over 60 breaths per minute) Grunting or moaning sounds when exhaling Flaring of the nostrils Retractions—with each breath, the chest appears to sink in between the ribs or under the ribcage Cyanosis—skin has a bluish tinge around the mouth and nose PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The process of clearing fetal alveolar fluid begins before term birth and continues through labor and after delivery. During late gestation, in response to increased concentrations of catecholamines and other
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hormones, the mature lung epithelium switches from actively secreting chloride and liquid into the air spaces to actively reabsorbing sodium and liquid ( figure 1 ) [ 4,5 ]. Increased oxygen tension at birth enhances the capacity of the epithelium to transport sodium and increases gene expression of the epithelial sodium channel [ 5 ]. Reduced gene expression of this channel contributes to the inability of immature lungs to switch from fluid secretion to absorption and can be upregulated by glucocorticoids [ 5 ]. Passive resorption of liquid also occurs after birth because of differences among the oncotic pressure of air spaces, interstitium, and blood vessels. The majority of water transport across the apical membrane is thought to occur through aquaporin 5 (AQP5) water channels [ 6 ]. Failure of fluid clearance to occur results in excess lung liquid. The liquid fills the air spaces and moves into the interstitium, where it pools
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  • Fall '19
  • Tachypnea

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