It exists because of an excess or a deficiency of electrons.
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Varieties: Positive (+)
Negative (-)
Electrical charge exists in discrete quantities,
which are integral multiples of the charge on an
electron
-e
,
e
= 1.602
×
10
-19
(C)
6.24 x 10
18
electrons carry a charge of 1 coulomb
On the macroscopic level, charge is assumed to
be “continuous”
Charge is conserved !
What is Electromagnetics?

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16
What is Electromagnetics?
Steps in Studying Electromagnetics
Define basic quantities (e.g., E-field, H-field)
Define the rules of operation (mathematics) of these
quantities (e.g., Vector Algebra, PDEs)
Postulate fundamental laws