In the representations of Margrave Ekkehard of Meissen (a margrave count of the march or border was a territorial govern- or whose duty it was to defend the frontier) and his Polish-born wife, Uta ( FIG . 16 30) , the sculptor created highly individualized figures and faces.Since these are eleventh-century people,sculpted in the thirteenth century, we are not looking at portrait likenesses of Ekkehard and Uta themselves, but it is still possible that live models were used to heighten the sense of a living presence in their portraits. But more than their faces contribute to this liveliness. The margrave nervously fingers the strap of the shield that is looped over his arm, and the coolly elegant Uta pulls her cloak around her neck as if to protect herself from the cold, while the extraordinary spread of her left hand is necessary to control the voluminous, thick cloth. The survival of original polychromy (multicolored painting on the surface of sculpture or architecture) indicates that color added to the impact of the figures.The impetus toward descriptive realism and psychological presence, initiated in the thirteenth century, will expand in the art of northern Europe into the fifteenth century and beyond. 16 29 ST. MAURICE Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany. c. 1240 1250. Dark sandstone with traces of polychromy. 16 30 EKKEHARD AND UTA West chapel, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany. c. 1245 1260. Stone with polychromy, height approx. 6 * 2 + (1.88 m).
16 31 Nicola Pisano PULPIT Baptistery, Pisa, Italy. 1260. Marble, height approx. 15 * (4.6 m). 522 CHAPTER 16 GOTHIC ART OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES GOTHIC ART IN ITALY The thirteenth century was a period of political division and economic expansion for the Italian peninsula. Part of southern Italy and Sicily was controlled by Frederick II von Hohenstaufen (1194 1250), Holy Roman emperor from 1220. Frederick was a politically unsettling force. He fought with a league of north Italian cities and briefly controlled the Papal States. On his death, however, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire ceased to be an important factor in Italian politics and culture. In northern Italy, in particular, organizations of successful merchants created communal governments in their prosperous and independent city-states and struggled against powerful families for political control. Artists began to emerge as independent agents, working directly with wealthy clients and with civic and religious institutions. It was during this time that new religious orders known as the mendicants (begging monks) arose to meet the needs of the growing urban population. They espoused an ideal of poverty, charity, and love, and they dedicated themselves to teaching and preaching, while living among the urban poor. Most notable in the beginning were the Franciscans, founded by St. Francis of Assisi (1182 1226; canonized in 1228). This son of a wealthy merchant gave away his possessions and devoted his life to God and the poor.As others began to join him, he wrote a simple rule for his followers, who were called brothers, or friars (from the Latin frater , meaning
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