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Modern European History Final Study Guide

Wanted natural resources in congo ivory slaves rubber

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Wanted natural resources – in Congo; ivory, slaves, rubber – to manufacture goods; wanted to educate Africans b/c they thought they didn’t know as much as their land as they did; wanted to civilize them Europeans felt that their discoveries gave them this ownership to these countries, since they claim to have found the area first. Also, they assumed as though they knew the area better than the natives. Social Darwinism – a lot of opportunity for economy Key (ID) terms: Romanticism: concern with individual and the emotion; personal, passionate sensibility; Romantic artists had lots of political perspectives; all of them question the value of rational inquiry as the soul of universal truths; important throughout Europe; poets
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Congress of Vienna : (1814-1815) restoration within Europe; peace treaty – no one country should dominate; 1] no one power should dominate; Britain & Austria stopped Prussia & Russia from gaining the upper hand; boundary disputes; 2] restoration of legitimate monarchs – Bourbon Family (royal family in France {, Spain & Italian states}); 3] France should be contained Conservatism : new strand of conservative thought that admired restraint but acknowledge & agreed that change should take place; new things would change but didn’t want things to go crazy – to prevent anarchy ; establish authority, hierarchy – Edmund Burke Liberalism : representation of the political desires of the new group; there’s no leaders (MAC); Locke – Social Contract; Rousseau – sovereignty from people; Enlightenment & French Revolution; central concept of liberty & get to do what you want without government restraint; wanted states based on constitutional principles; wanted political representation from Parliament; liberals wanted to remove control over the economy; wanted to get rid of Corn Laws; liberty & equality; FREEDOM Iron Law of Wages : David Ricardo “Principles of Political Economy”; wages will always be low if you work with supply & demand; if you give workers more $, they will be able to maintain more children who would work for lower wages again; minimum wage is the necessity to survive Laissez-Faire economics : hands-off, uninterrupted free market economy; no taxes or regulations Utilitarianism : Jeremy Bentham (thinks its hedonistic); Utility Principle – promotes the greatest happiness in the greatest number (Greatest Happiness Principle); philosophy that emphasized education; worked for practical gains; may sacrifice the innocent (slaves) – only the majority is happy (unfair) – maximize happiness & reduce suffering Jeremy Bentham : (1748-1832) argued for legal & social reform; people stuck between pain & pleasure – actions should be accorded as right or wrong, whether it increases pain or pleasure – motives are bad or good based on the outcome happiness is a result of experiencing pleasure and lack of pain Edmund Burke : founder of modern conservative thought (“The Reflection of the Revolutions in France”) David Ricardo : “Principles of Political Economy”; Iron Law of Wages Socialism – Utopian Socialists, Early English Socialists : French Utopian
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