Qilid drained field drained terrace ridged terrace

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qilid “drained field” (drained terrace, ridged terrace). Leveled terrace land, the surface of which is tilled and ditch mounded (usually in cross-contour fashion) for cultivation and drainage of dry crops, such as sweet potatoes and legumes. Drained fields, though pri- vately owned,are kept in this temporary state for only a minimum number of annual cycles before shifting (back) to a more permanent form of terrace use . . . . payo “pond field” (bunded terrace, rice terrace, rice field). Leveled farmland, bunded to retain irrigation water for shallow inundation of artificial soil, and carefully worked for the cultivation of wet-field rice, taro, and other crops; privately owned discrete units with permanent stone markers; the most valued of all land forms. Source: Conklin, H. C. (1967–68). Some Aspects of Ethnographic Research in Ifugao. New York Academy of Sciences, Transactions, ser. 2, 30, 107–108.
small and mobile,but farming communities created more favorable environments for pathogens (causative agents of disease). Close contact with livestock allowed patho- gens to move from animals to humans,accumulations of rubbish provided fertile breeding grounds for diseases and pests,and large communities provided the abundant reserves of potential victims that epidemic diseases need to flourish and spread. Thus, as populations grew and exchanges between communities multiplied, diseases traveled more freely from region to region.Their impact took the form of a series of epidemiological decrescendos that began with catastrophic epidemics and were fol- lowed by less disastrous outbreaks as immune systems in region after region adapted to the new diseases. As the historian William McNeill has shown, long- range epidemiological exchanges within the Afro- Eurasian world zone immunized the populations of this zone against a wide range of diseases to which popula- tions in other world zones remained more vulnerable. Trans-Eurasian epidemiological exchanges may help explain the slow growth of much of Eurasia during the first millennium CE ; they may also explain why, once the world was united after 1500 CE , epidemiological ex- changes had a catastrophic impact on regions outside Afro-Eurasia. Hierarchies of Power In many tropical regions people harvested root crops piecemeal as they were needed. However, in regions of grain farming, such as southwestern Asia, China, and Mesoamerica, plants ripened at the same time; thus, entire crops had to be harvested and stored in a short period. For this reason grain agriculture required people, for the first time in history, to accumulate and store large surpluses of food.As villages of grain farmers multiplied and their productivity rose, the size of stored surpluses grew.Conflicts over control of these increasingly valuable surpluses often triggered the emergence of new forms of inequality and new systems of power.

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