describe the hormonal control of sperm production and the maintenance of maleness during the life cycledescribe the overall anatomical structure of the female reproductive system
StructureFunctionOvaryproduces ova (egg cells) and sex hormones, oestrogen and progesteroneOviduct/(Fallopian tube)receives ova from ovary; transports ova from ovary to uterus; if sperm present fertilisation occurs in the upper third of oviductUterussite of implantation of a fertilised ovum; site of development of embryo to birthVaginabirth canal for expelling baby; copulatory organ which receives penis in copulationThe term urogenital (or urinogenital) system is more applicable to males than to females becausein males the urethra is part of both systems, so the systems overlap in space, but not in time.In females the two systems, urinary and genital, are separate.describe oogenesisoOogenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female form of gametogenesis; the male equivalent is spermatogenesis. It involves the development of the various stagesof the immature ovum.oThe process by which female gametes are produced is called oogenesis.oFemale gametes also develop stepwise through a number of stages. Complete the flow chart to show, in order, the names of the various stages of female gamete development. oOogonium → primary oocyte → secondary oocyte → ovum and polar bodies.oGonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the secretion of FSH / follicle stimulating hormone and LH / luteinising hormone.oFollicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates follicular maturation and the secretion of oestrogen.oLuteinising hormone (LH) stimulates final maturation of follicle, release of the ovum, and then the conversion of the ruptured follicle into the corpus luteum, with the subsequent production of progesterone.oOestrogen plays a part in the development of female reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics. Oestrogen also acts to maintain the hormone cycle and to stimulateproliferation in the endometrium.oProgesterone stimulates maturation of uterine glands and maintains the endometrium in pregnancy-ready state.oOvulation is controlled through a negative feedback mechanism involving LH, FSH and the levels of oestrogen and progesterone acting on the follicles.oThe signal for menstruation to occur is a decline in progesterone and oestrogen levels caused by the degeneration of the corpus luteum. Progesterone and some oestrogen are produced by the corpus luteum. The trigger is low progesterone.1. Describe the anatomy of an oocyte (egg).
The secondary oocyte has a haploid pronucleus and is surrounded by the zona pellucida (a layer of clear material), which, in turn, is surrounded by a mass of granulosa cells called cumulus cells.