Would rather refer to temperament problems because we

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would rather refer to “temperament problems” because we think referring to character implies inherent deficiencies that might be overcome by constantly imploring persons to shape up.) Educators working with many students who manifest resulting behaviors and attitudes such as short attention spans, “acting out” in the classroom, or difficulty in pursuing intellectual tasks are trying to devise and implement approaches that help students become successful inside and outside the school.11-3cSocial-Class Advantages and Disadvantages Are Not UniversalSocialization differentials such as those we have discussed in this section reflect averagedifferences across social-class groups. They describe family and neighborhood patterns that are present in many locations, but they are not descriptions of universal problems that confront all low-income children and youth. As a teacher, you must remember that no universal patterns distinguish all middle-class families and students from all working-class families. Many children from working-class families do well in school, and many middle-class children do not. Many families with low SES do provide a home environmentconducive to achievement, and the great majority of low-incomeparents try to offer their children a positive environment to support growth and learning. It also appears that the child-raising methods of working-class families probably are becoming more like those of middle-class families. Nevertheless,children from low-income, working-class homes are still disproportionately likely to grow up in an environment that inadequately prepares them to succeed in contemporary schools. In subsequent chapters we describe expanded programs for young children, as well as in-school reforms, that
have been initiated to counteract and overcome the negative outcomes experienced by many low-income children and youth.11-3dThe Heredity versus Environment DebateThe past century has seen heated controversy about whether intelligence, which relates strongly to school achievement, is determinedprimarily by heredity or by environment.Hereditarian ViewWhen IQ tests were undergoing rapid development early in the twentieth century, many psychologists believed that intelligence was determined primarily by heredity. Those who took this hereditarian view of intelligencethought that IQ tests and similar instruments measured innate differences, present from birth, in people’s capacity. When economically disadvantaged groups and some minority groups, such as African Americans, scored considerably below other groups, the hereditarians believed that the groups with the lower scores were innately inferior in intellectual capacity.The hereditarian view underwent a major revival in the 1970s and 1980s, based particularly on the writings of Arthur Jensen, Richard Herrnstein, and a group of researchers conducting the Minnesota Study of Twins. Summarizing previous research as well as their own studies,

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