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system. Every file on an NTFS volume is described in a record in the MFT, including the MFT itself. If the file is small enough, the entire file is stored in an MFT record. Any
overflow is stored in other clusters, with pointers to the clusters in that files MFT record. (Stallings, 2012, p. 567) Recoverability. One of the key features of NTFS is its reliability, which is achieved by its ability to recover from system crashes and disk failures. The key to recoverability is logging; each transaction that alters a file is logged prior to the transaction. Thus, in the event of a crash, the file can be reconstructed when the system recovers. (Stallings, 2012, p. 569) MacintoshThe Macintosh operating system only supports a limited number of file structures.Mac files must contain two parts: a resource fork and a data fork. (Silberschatz, Galvin, & Gagne, 2012, p. 429) •Data fork. The data that is recognized as a file on other operating systems is stored in the data fork. •Resource fork. Other information such as program code, or a preview picture, is stored in the resource fork. Resource forks are generally not recognized by other file systems. (Logiciels & Services Duhem, 2014) Automated search. One of the features in the Mac operating system is its automatic search for executable programs. The OS will search the directory system of any hard drive or network connection added to the system for any executable programs. Itwill then record the metadata, filename and location in the Desktop File (Silberschatz, Galvin, & Gagne, 2012, p. 440) thus giving the user an easy way to launch the program.SecurityKnown VulnerabilitiesClearly, a difference exists with respect to memory and file systems, so likewise one should expect variances in known vulnerabilities. Avoid confusion, however, with applications that run within those operating systems. Generally, an application stack thatpossesses exploitable code does so across architectures. The discussion of OS risks will
not include third party or extraneous software instead focusing on the OS core. None of the unknown vulnerabilities, or those undisclosed until after the terms of cited report were included. What follows shows indicatively the state of each operating system with consideration toward availability of exploitable code and the level of severity.UNIX/Linux. In a report published by Positive Technologies (2012) from data extrapolated from the National Institute of standards and technology, Linux scored very high with 64 known vulnerabilities, none of which was critical by definition. It is imperative to understand that hundreds of versions forks exist, each cascading from sevenspecific families. The disjointed nature of Linux implies a lack of cohesion with any component save the kernel. UNIX, on the other hand, represented a mere 25 again, with no critical exploits. Similarly, both Linux and UNIX variants possessed higher numbers of low impacting threats with few medium or high-level risks. Less vulnerability indicates a more secure OS, but the disconnected ties between Linux versions may offer difficulties in managing.