If however he was late only and the others who took

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tardiness. If, however, he was late only and the others who took the same route to school were all on time, the observer may make an internal judgment of the student’s tardiness. c. Consistency – a behavioral rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time. a) “How often did the person do this in the past?” b) If the student has always been on time for the entire semester, and arrives 10 minutes late for one class, it will be perceived differently than if he/she has arrived to class late every class for the whole semester. People tend to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors.
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Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. Self-serving bias – the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Selective perception – people’s selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Halo effect – Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. a. Intelligent, skillful, practical, industrious, determined, and warm b. Intelligent, skillful, practical, industrious, determined, and cold Contrast effect – the concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered. a. Job interviews: if the person before you was crappy, you look better to the interviewer. If the person before you was fantastic, you look mediocre to the interviewer. Projection – attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping – judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. Heuristics – judgment shortcuts in decision making. “Rules of thumb.” Prejudice – an unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group.
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