So far three zones have been set up in zhongguncun in

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So far three zones have been set up in Zhongguncun in Bei- jing, East Lake in Wuhan and Zhangjiang in Shanghai. Enter- prises located in these zones enjoy preferential policies and public support for their innovative activities. Furthermore, the Framework for Development and Reform Planning for the Pearl River Delta Region (2008-20) aims to make the region an innovative centre in the Asia-Pacific area. By 2012, China had 105 high-technology zones, hosting about half of the national technology incubators, and 132 Economic and Technological Development Zones, which have in recent years expanded from the fast-growing coastal cities to other regions. To boost the development of the western region, the Great Western Exploration Strategy supports investments in research infrastructure, research collaboration and human resource mobility between the eastern and western regions. Globalisation: China’s science and innovation systems are weakly linked to global networks, as shown by its very low share of co-authorship and co-invention (Panel 1 q, r ). The government seeks to improve the openness of the STI sys- tem through continued government co-operation on S&T and diversification of the ways in which Chinese enter- prises and PRIs interact with foreign counterparts. In recent years, China has also increased its participation in large-scale international collaborative projects, such as the EU 7th Framework Programme, and has engaged in annual bilateral dialogues with key partner countries, such as the United States and Germany, on STI co-operation. Recent developments in STI expenditure: China’s R&D inten- sity has tripled since 1998, reaching 1.98% of GDP in 2012, approaching the level of EU28 as a whole. BERD as a share of GERD rose to the top level of OECD countries and firm self-funded R&D reached 95% of BERD in 2012.
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III.9. STI COUNTRY PROFILES: CHINA OECD SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY OUTLOOK 2014 © OECD 2014 295 Note: Policy information comes from country responses to the OECD STI Outlook policy questionnaires 2014 and 2012. China’s responses are available in the OECD STI Outlook Policy Database , edition 2014 at . Source: See reader’s guide and methodological annex. 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 100 80 60 40 20 0 Tax incentives on IP gains OECD OECD median (2007) China China (2007) OECD median China OECD median China EU28 China (2000-03) China China (2007) OECD sample median Industry Services High-tech manufacturing Primary and resource-based industries Non-resource- based industries Medium- to low-tech manufacturing Bio- and nano- technologies ICT Environment-related technologies % of PCT patent applications filed by universities and PRIs Panel 5. Most relevant instruments of public funding of business R&D, 2014 Direct funding Indirect funding Competitive grants Repayable advances Debt financing Equity financing Technology consulting Innovation vouchers Tax incentives for R&D 42.0 6.0 13.0 Panel 4. Allocation of public funds to R&D, by sector, type and mode of funding, 2012 Universities Basic research Civil oriented Generic research Institutional funding Direct funding Business R&D
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