Seen a stimulus several times and learned to

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Seen a stimulus several times and learned to associate the event with an appropriate response Implications Positive and negative associations can be tied to objects in real life and elicit a behavioral response Accounts for likes, dislikes, or fears in learning Accounts for associative learning Fails to account for learning complex abilities like chess, dance Difficult to condition certain things like babies Limited array of responses: reflexes and innate responses 4b. Operant Conditioning: Skinner Shaping Improving your command of an ability (operant behavior) through repetition Reinforcement Occurs when a type of stimulus encourages a type of response Either through its presence or its removal Positive reinforcers Stimuli that when present increase the likelihood of a reaction Food Negative reinforcers Removing this stimulus can increase a reaction Schedules of reinforcement How often reinforcement is given to encourage a response continuous vs. intermittent Continuous reinforcement occurs when it is given during each learning event versus a varied number of events Extinction Removing the operant behavior by removing the reinforcement Punishment A stimulus that inflicts pain or suffering following an undesirable behavior Teaches potentially maladaptive behavior e.g. lying, sneaking Can promote even more poor behavior like violence Type 1 punishment: stimulus still offered (sent to detention), but considered a punishment because meant to discourage a behavior Type 2 punishment: remove stimulus, remove the behavior Implications Makes learning operant behavior very dependent on the person who controls reinforcement and punishment Applicable in toddlerhood If one learns the system, they can game it (think The Breakfast Club ) People can learn without reinforcement (self-directed) 4c. Social Learning: Bandura Imitation Learning that occurs from imitating a model and modeling after them; allows for learning without the need for reinforcement or for
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Study Guide Psych 19 Chapters 2 and 3 Page 14 of 16 repetitive opportunities Imitation also uses vicarious reinforcement Role of models Vicarious reinforcement The observer watches what happens to the model; if the outcome is good, they tend to imitate and model after them; or if they were punished, then it is avoided; unpunished misdeeds can also be imitated Implications Models are important Similarity in behaviors among members of a cohort may reflect influence of common models, rewards or punishments 4d. Cognitive Behaviorism Addresses what classical conditioning and operant conditioning fail to do: address for the processes happening internally of a learner’s mind (they assume that cognitive processes shouldn’t be used since it is difficult to directly measure) People create a mental representation of an action occurring in a set
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