Secularization also meant the abandonment of the

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Secularization also meant the abandonment of the presidios, which left the Spanish settlementsvulnerable to attacks.Californio rancheros no longer produced solely for local consumption, but entered the mercantilecapitalist cycle and assumed the right to define their own legitimacy. They controlled CaliforniagovernmentWomen in transformation of californaSocialize California women, mission father relied of them,missionar- ies selected the highest-ranking native women as brides for Spanish-Mexican malecolonists to forge a mes- tizo culture, a culture closer to the criollo ideal. Through women, thepriests passed on religious tradition and the custom of protecting their daughters’ chastity untilmarriage. Some women did achieve a measure of power, or better still, influence.Californio families were patriarchal; according to Antonia Castañeda, sexual violence, rape andincest, and family violence were common.2Mexican women were better off legally than their Euro-American counterparts. They could ownproperty and use the courts to defend their property interests. The status of women in Spanishand, later, in Mexican California differed subtly from that in other parts of Mexico.The bear flagAs eruo American arrived, many people intermarried so they have storng ties with rancheros andhacendados, as people traveled into califor new immigrants mixed with natives, many took overwhere the uninhabited area
John c. fremont and bear flagFremont 3rdexpendtion stand out in the rush to caliMexican govement gave him permission to settle as long as he stayed away form coastalsettlements., but as euro ameicans started to come in reinforcement soon came into place andthey rose the flag in 1846Letter from polk, war was imminent, they declared war on mexico at bear flag, merchantsconvinced some Mexican ranch owners that joining the invasion was in their best interest; thepoor, on the other hand, remained loyal and resented the gringos. Meanwhile, the behavior of the“Bear Flaggers” alienated their few friends.Fremont took general vaallejo june 1846 , Fremont further estranged rich merchants andlandowners by initiating a policy of forced loans and confiscation of land and property.Bear Flaggers rustled cattle and horses, looted homes, and wounded and murdered innocentpeople.Men that weren’t armed were shot,The Berreyesa murders served no military purpose, they were extra-legal, and theirassassinations ushered in a period of the wanton murder of Mexicans, mostly by lynching.William Carrigan and Cleve Webb confirm that at least 143 were victims of lethal mob violence.California ranked second to Texas, which had 232 victims.Us invasion of califroniaDrake sloat land 250 marines at montery and raised us flag, fremont was tank of major, place incommand of calif battalion voluteeers, calfornians were poorly armed and forced him tosurrender,Gold transforms californaEnd of the gold rush of 1849, 1842-1847 mexican minder culled 1300 pound of gold a dn manypeople flooded California in search of gold outnumbering the mexcan population, mexcans were

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Acuna
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