socialpschobjectives-CH 3,4

To maintain our self esteem o to put a good face on

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To maintain our self esteem o To put a “good face” on failure, presenting ourselves to others in the best possible light so they will think well of us o How much information about the cause of your success or failure is available to you 13. Discuss the motives underlying defensive attributions. Discuss the relationship between  defensive attributions and “blaming the victim” of misfortune. 14. Discuss cross-cultural differences in the prevalence of correspondence bias. Explain 
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how the two-step process of attribution can moderate these cultural differences. Because those in Eastern cultures stress group autonomy while Western Culture stresses independence and self-containment; a person’s behavior reflects internal traits, motives, and values, Eastern Cultures are more likely to revise and correct their first impressions by taking the situation into account while Westerners will often simply rely on that first impression In the two step process, people of all cultures make the first step: automatically making dispositional attributions about other people, but only those from Eastern cultures are more likely to take the next step of taking the situation into account. 15. Describe evidence from the “second wave” of cross-cultural research that shows that  people from collectivist cultures do think about others in dispositional terms. Provide two  different explanations for cross-cultural differences in the correspondence bias. 16. Describe cross-cultural differences in the actor/observer difference, the self-serving  bias, and the belief in a just world. Self-serving bias- Self serving bias is strongest in the U.S. and other Western countries. However, other Asian cultures displayed a markedly low or even absent level of self-serving bias Actor/Observer difference- People in Eastern cultures who hold a collectivistic view towards social situations are more likely to take the situation into account before making a judgment. The opposite is true for Western cultures. Belief in a just world- The just world attribution can be used to explain and justify injustice. So, in cultures with extremes of wealth and poverty, just world attributions are more common than in cultures where wealth is evenly distributed
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