provide cheaper electric power to as many people as possible, especially in the rural areas; and there is a difference between the “homeless poor” and the “homeless less poor,” because the latter class can afford to rent houses in the meantime that they cannot yet buy their own homes, while the former cannot. Equal Protection Clause (Valid Classification)The preventive suspension of a policeman lasting until termination of the criminal case against
2014 Notes on Constitutional Law by Justice Amy Lazaro-Javier for Jurists Bar Review Center™Page 15 of 78him, does not violate the policeman's right to equal protection of the laws. There is substantial distinction between policemen and other government employees; policemen carry weapons and the badge of the law, which can be used to harass or intimidate witnesses against them. Equal Protection Clause (Valid Classification)The fact that the Ombudsman may start an investigation on the basis of an anonymous letter does not violate the equal protection clause. Firstly, there can be no objection to this procedure because it is provided in the Constitution itself; secondly, in permitting the filing of complaints “in any form and in any manner,” the framers of the Constitution took into account the well-known reticence of people which keep them from complaining against official wrongdoing; finally, the Office of the Ombudsman is different from other investigatory and prosecutory agencies of government because those subject of its jurisdiction are public officials who, through official pressure and influence, can quash, delay or dismiss investigations held against them. Equal Protection Clause (Valid Classification)The Supreme Court found substantial distinction between the print and the broadcast media which would justify different treatment under B.P. 881, viz: the physical limitations of the broadcast spectrum, the pervasive presence of the broadcast media in the lives of Filipinos, and the earlier ruling that the freedom of television and radio broadcasting is somewhat lesser than the freedom accorded to the print media. Equal Protection Clause (Valid Classification)Every classification made by law is presumed reasonable, and the party who challenges the law must present proof of arbitrariness. Equal ProtectionClause (Valid Classification)The Supreme Court ruled that election to the position of Congressman is not a reasonable basis for valid classification in criminal law enforcement. The functions and duties of the office are not substantial distinctions which lift him from the class of prisoners interrupted in their freedom and restricted in liberty of movement. Lawful arrest and confinement are germane to the purposes of the law and apply to all those belonging to the same class.