Factors influencing costs and benefits predation

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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 33
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
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factors influencing costs and benefits-predation risks-distribution of resourcespredation risk influences cots and benefits of group defenseclumped versus dispersed food (or other resources influences cost: benefit offinding and defending them)Human Group LivingEvolutionary factors?-Savannah habitat in the EEA?-Increased predation riskall modern terrestrial primates (on ground) are social (live in groups)-Clumped food resourceslarge grazing animalsSpecies comparison-Chimps and gorillas are social group-livers-But! Low predation risk, and distributed food resources (despite some cooperative hunting)-Why are large apes social?Defense against conspecificsRisk of infanticide lead to female groupsFemale-defense polygynyPotential combination of (in hominids)-Increased predation risk-Cooperative group hunting-Clumped patches of shareable food-Inter-group hostilityReciprocity and Cooperation among Kin and Non-kinWhat about cooperation among non-relatives?
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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 33
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified
ReciprocityYou scratch my back ill scratch yoursInvolves cooperative behavior, but cooperation is in the best self-interest of the participantEvolutionary approaches to reciprocity have relied heavily on game theoryDetermine optimal strategies that depend on what others in the game are doing -Frequency-dependent optimalityPrisoners DilemmaGame theoretical model-reciprocity and cheatingtwo prisoners are isolatedeach offered deal-both cooperate, receive short jail sentence-1 defects and goes free, other gets long jail sentence-both defect, both go to jail for intermediate sentenceselfish (defection) is best strategyhow could cooperation (reciprocity) evolve?Repeated interactionsOptimal long term strategy is tit-for-tat-cooperate at first-then do as was done unto you-retaliation and forgiveness-an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS)reciprocity can evolve if cheaters are punishedTit-for-tattit-for-tat strategy optimal strategyit is nice (cooperates at first)
ReciprocityDo these game theory models have anything to do with real life?What factors influence reciprocity in humans?

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