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Each router maintains a database that reflects the

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Each router maintains a database that reflects the known topology of the autonomous system of which it is a part. The topology is expressed as a directed graph. The graph consists of following: Vertices ,or nodes ;of two types: > Router > Network, which is in turn of two types: (a) Transit, if it can carry data that neither originate nor terminate on an end system attached to this network. (b) Stub ,if it is not a transit network Edges of two types : > Graph edges that connect two router vertices when the corresponding routers are connected to each other by a direct point to point link. > Graph edges that connect a router vertex to a network vertex when the router is directly connected to the network Figure is the resulting directed graph. Two routers joined by a point to point link When multiple routers are attached to a network If a single router is attached to a network An end system, called a host, can be directly connected to a router. If a router is connected to other autonomous system. Figure 16.5 Directed Graph of autonomous system 5. What are the RSVP Goals and Characteristics? (20marks) Solution Resources Reservation (RSVP) Goals and Characteristics A key task of an internetwork is to deliver data from a source to one or more destinations with the desired quality of service (QoS).The following design goals guided the development of RSVP specification. 1. Provide the ability of heterogeneous receiver to make reservations specifically tailored to their own needs 2. Deal gracefully with changes in multicast group membership. Membership in a group can be dynamic. Reservations must be dynamic, separate dynamic reservations are needed for each multicast group member 3. The aggregate resources reserved for a multicast group reflect the resources actually needed. Multicast routing takes place over a tree such that packet splitting is minimized.
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4. Enable receivers to select one source from among multiple sources transmitting to a multicast group 5. Deal gracefully with changes in routes, reestablishing the resource reservation along the new paths as long as adequate resources are available. 6. Control protocol overhead. Just as resource reservation are aggregate to take advantages of common path segments among multiple multicast receivers so the actual RSVP traffic in the internet 7. Be independent of routing protocol .RSVP is not a routing protocol, its task is to established and maintain resource reservations over a path or distribution tree.The independent of how the path or tree was created. Based on these design goal, RFC 2205 lists the following characteristics of RSVP: Unicast and multicast Simplex Receiver initiated reservation Maintaining soft state in the interior Providing different reservation styles Transparent operation through non-RSVP routers Support for IPv4 and IPv6 6. Describe the RSVP operation.(20 marks) Solution RSVP Operation This configuration consists of four routes. The link between any two routers indicated by a thin black line could be a point-to-point link or a network. Three host
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