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Social and Cultural FactorsAs previously mentioned, respiratory diseases affect both China’s rural and urban populations. A positive correlation though has been found in the areas with higher per capita income and respiratory morbidity and mortality rates (Cao, Liang, & Niu, 2017). This can be attributed to industrial make up and economic development of these areas. Industry means more industrial waste gases, more automobile exhaust, and more pollution sources.Economic FactorsAir pollution has brought with it a considerable burden on the Chinese economy. In 2003,the World Bank estimated that the total healthcare costs associated with air pollution in China were between 157 and 520 billion Chinese yuan, accounting for 1.2–3.3% of China’s gross domestic product (Kan, Chen, & Hong, 2009). In 2010, another study demonstrated that the cost of health outcomes of air pollution in 113 cities had an estimated total cost of 341.4 billion Yuan of which 87.79 % contributed to premature deaths (Chen, Chen, & Kan, 2010). From a non- health related standpoint, “bad air days” can cause a 6.5% drop in China’s gross domestic product (GDP) annually, as factories are forced to close down to avoid the possible dangerous effects of breathing in polluted air (Gustke, 2016). WHO estimates that associated health and productivity losses associated with urban air pollution to be more than $20 billion (Economy, 2003). Air pollution can also cause a decrease in tourism levels which has a
FINAL PROJECT ONE MILESTONE TWO: CHINA11direct negative effect on the country’s economy. Air deterioration as a result of pollution greatly harms public health while placing huge economic strains and increasing losses on a country’s resources.Addressing the IssueDifferent forms of intervention are taking place in all regions of China. In use in most areas, new forms of coal have been developed to reduce dangerous emission levels. One such example is the honeycomb coals. The perforated shape of the coal permits an even level of air supply, leading to higher combustion efficiency, while their formulation with lime reacts with sulfur allowing it to remain in the ash rather than omitting sulfur dioxide into the air (Zhang & Smith, 2007). During the 1980’s in rural areas, the dependence of solid fuels for cooking was reviewed by the National Improved Stove Program (NISP). The NISP introduced stoves with chimneys and blowers to foster more efficient combustion levels (Zhang & Smith, 2007). In 2013, China’s Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan was created. In 2016, Clean Air Asia published a report which found that 90 percent of the 120 cities wherein data was available showed their PM2.5 or PM 10 reduction hit the target goals in 2015 (Ccacoalition, 2016). 14 of those cities saw over a 20 percent reduction in the PM2.5 concentrations (Ccacoalition, 2016)Major StakeholdersA number of groups, both political and environmental, are standing with China to help reduce air pollution in China. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched an international collaboration with China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), The Ministry of Environmental Protection, and the Ministry of Science and Technology to reduce the emissions of pollutants, toxins, and greenhouse gases